Suppose that 10,000 U.S. licensed drivers are randomly selected.
How many would you expect to be male?
Using the table or tree diagram, construct a contingency table of gender versus age group.
Using the contingency table, find the probability that out of the age 20–64 group, a randomly selected driver is female.
Approximately 86.5% of Americans commute to work by car, truck, or van. Out of that group, 84.6% drive alone and 15.4% drive in a carpool. Approximately 3.9% walk to work and approximately 5.3% take public transportation.
Construct a table or a tree diagram of the situation. Include a branch for all other modes of transportation to work.
Assuming that the walkers walk alone, what percent of all commuters travel alone to work?
Suppose that 1,000 workers are randomly selected. How many would you expect to travel alone to work?
Suppose that 1,000 workers are randomly selected. How many would you expect to drive in a carpool?
Car, Truck or Van
Walk
Public Transportation
Other
Totals
Alone
0.7318
Not Alone
0.1332
Totals
0.8650
0.0390
0.0530
0.0430
1
If we assume that all walkers are alone and that none from the other two groups travel alone (which is a big assumption) we have:
P (Alone) = 0.7318 + 0.0390 = 0.7708.
Make the same assumptions as in (b) we have: (0.7708)(1,000) = 771
(0.1332)(1,000) = 133
When the Euro coin was introduced in 2002, two math professors had their statistics students test whether the Belgian one Euro coin was a fair coin. They spun the coin rather than tossing it and found that out of 250 spins, 140 showed a head (event
H ) while 110 showed a tail (event
T ). On that basis, they claimed that it is not a fair coin.
Based on the given data, find
P (
H ) and
P (
T ).
Use a tree to find the probabilities of each possible outcome for the experiment of tossing the coin twice.
Use the tree to find the probability of obtaining exactly one head in two tosses of the coin.
Use the tree to find the probability of obtaining at least one head.
Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. The following are real data from Santa Clara County, CA. As of a certain time, there had been a total of 3,059 documented cases of AIDS in the county. They were grouped into the following categories:
* includes homosexual/bisexual IV drug users
Homosexual/Bisexual
IV Drug User*
Heterosexual Contact
Other
Totals
Female
0
70
136
49
____
Male
2,146
463
60
135
____
Totals
____
____
____
____
____
Suppose a person with AIDS in Santa Clara County is randomly selected.
Find
P (Person is female).
Find
P (Person has a risk factor heterosexual contact).
Find
P (Person is female OR has a risk factor of IV drug user).
Find
P (Person is female AND has a risk factor of homosexual/bisexual).
Find
P (Person is male AND has a risk factor of IV drug user).
Find
P (Person is female GIVEN person got the disease from heterosexual contact).
Construct a Venn diagram. Make one group females and the other group heterosexual contact.
The completed contingency table is as follows:
* includes homosexual/bisexual IV drug users
Homosexual/Bisexual
IV Drug User*
Heterosexual Contact
Other
Totals
Female
0
70
136
49
255
Male
2,146
463
60
135
2,804
Totals
2,146
533
196
184
3,059
$\frac{255}{3059}$
$\frac{196}{3059}$
$\frac{718}{3059}$
0
$\frac{463}{3059}$
$\frac{136}{196}$
Answer these questions using probability rules. Do NOT use the contingency table. Three thousand fifty-nine cases of AIDS had been reported in Santa Clara County, CA, through a certain date. Those cases will be our population. Of those cases, 6.4% obtained the disease through heterosexual contact and 7.4% are female. Out of the females with the disease, 53.3% got the disease from heterosexual contact.
Find
P (Person is female).
Find
P (Person obtained the disease through heterosexual contact).
Find
P (Person is female GIVEN person got the disease from heterosexual contact)
Construct a Venn diagram representing this situation. Make one group females and the other group heterosexual contact. Fill in all values as probabilities.
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Source:
OpenStax, Introduction to statistics i - stat 213 - university of calgary - ver2015revb. OpenStax CNX. Oct 21, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11874/1.3
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