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a) Write down what is meant by a "healthy lifestyle".

b) Which environmental factors could enhance the distribution of AIDS?

c) What do you see as your own responsibility towards yourself as well as to others with regard to HIV/AIDS?


  • what is tuberculosis? (TB)?

It is a disease, caused by bacteria, that normally affects the lungs but which can also affect the spinal cord, heart and kidneys. It is highly infectious, as small droplets of spittle containing the bacteria that are dispersed through the air when the infected person coughs are inhaled by other people. According to estimates, one infected person communicates the disease to three other people before treatment of the infected person commences. When or an infected person does not complete the course of treatment, it is estimated that he or she will infect ten other people before he or she dies.

The symptoms include a cough that lasts for weeks, weakness, night sweats, pains in the chest and coughing up of blood.

  • How is it possible to avoid becoming infected with TB?

By keeping the body strong and taking care when among people. People who are within breathing distance of people infected with TB are very vulnerable. Good housing is important.

People who work in mines where there is silica (a type of rock) are also vulnerable.

Anybody who shows symptoms of the disease should be tested straight away, so it is important for people to be informed about the disease.

  • Is it possible to help people who have TB?

Yes. Tests can be done at clinics, hospitals and by doctors. Treatment takes from six to nine months. The danger is that TB sufferers begin to feel better after a few days of treatment and then stop taking the medication. At this stage only a small number of the bacteria have actually died and the rest have started building up resistance to the disease. This means that the medication is less effective when the condition of the patient worsens, and many such patients eventually die from the disease.


Plan a campaign to improve the problem of TB in South Africa.


  • What is malaria?

malaria is a disease that is caused by a unicellular organism that lives and multiplies in the red blood corpuscles and destroys the cell when it breaks free. The organisms multiply extremely rapidly and very quickly cause severe illness in the form of chills and fever, leading to the death of the affected person.

The organism gains entry into the body when an infected mosquito bites the person.

  • How is it possible to avoid becoming infected with malaria?

By avoiding areas where malaria occurs, by wearing long-sleeved clothing and by applying mosquito repellents to the skin. Mosquitoes can also be controlled by means of poisons. All the countries in an affected region need to co-operate, otherwise the disease easily spreads back again. The measures also have to be continued for long enough. In the past, efforts to eradicate the mosquitoes have not been successful.

  • Is it possible to help people who have malaria?

Yes, provided they react quickly when the symptoms of infection occur and they are able to get medical help. Prophylactic medication (that stops you getting the disease) is relatively effective, but has to be taken correctly. The medication has to be continued for four weeks after leaving the infected area.

The malaria organism is able to adapt very rapidly and to build up resistance against medication. This means that medication might be effective initially, but can systematically lose effectiveness.

The initial symptoms are like those of influenza, but the headaches and nausea become acute and are followed by a high fever.


Investigate the possibility of fighting malaria by treating or changing the areas where malaria is rife.


Learning outcomes (LOs)
LO 1
Promotion of Health The learner is able to make informed decisions concerning personal, community and environmental health.
We know this when the learner:
1.1 plans an action in which laws and/or policies for protecting environmental health are applied to address an environmental health issue;
1.2 critically analyses the causes of common diseases in relation to socio-economic and environmental factors;
1.4 indicates that he/she is able to take responsible and informed decisions on personal and environmental safety; and;
1.5 examines a health and safety issue related to violence, and proposes alternatives to violence as well as counter-strategies.
LO 2
Social Development The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding of and commitment to constitutional rights and responsibilities, and to show an understanding of diverse cultures and religions.
We know this when the learner:
2.1 discusses the violation of human rights and plans counter strategies;
2.2 explains how democratic processes can be employed to deal with local problems;
2.3 discusses how he / she would promote nation building in different contexts;
2.4 critically evaluates changes in cultural norms and values in terms of personal and community issues; and
2.5 is able to discuss the contributions made to social development by organisations from within different religions.

LO 5

Orientation with Regard to the World of Work

The learner will be able to make informed decisions about further study and career choices.

We know this when the learner:

5.1 identifies and discusses career and study choices and their corresponding requirements;

5.2 investigates career and study opportunities related to own interests and abilities.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Life orientation grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11048/1.1
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