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( a + b ) ( c + d ) = a c + a d + b c + b d

This method is commonly called the FOIL method .

  • F First terms
  • O Outer terms
  • I Inner terms
  • L Last terms

( a + b ) ( 2 + 3 ) = ( a + b ) + ( a + b ) 2 terms + ( a + b ) + ( a + b ) + ( a + b ) 3 terms

Rearranging,

= a + a + b + b + a + a + a + b + b + b = 2 a + 2 b + 3 a + 3 b

Combining like terms,

= 5 a + 5 b

This use of the distributive property suggests the following rule.

Multiplying a polynomial by a polynomial

To multiply two polynomials together, multiply every term of one polynomial by every term of the other polynomial.

Sample set c

Perform the following multiplications and simplify.

With some practice, the second and third terms can be combined mentally.

( m 3 ) 2 = ( m 3 ) ( m 3 ) = m m + m ( 3 ) 3 m 3 ( 3 ) = m 2 3 m 3 m + 9 = m 2 6 m + 9

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( x + 5 ) 3 = ( x + 5 ) ( x + 5 ) ( x + 5 ) Associate the first two factors . = [ ( x + 5 ) ( x + 5 ) ] ( x + 5 ) = [ x 2 + 5 x + 5 x + 25 ] ( x + 5 ) = [ x 2 + 10 x + 25 ] ( x + 5 ) = x 2 x + x 2 5 + 10 x x + 10 x 5 + 25 x + 25 5 = x 3 + 5 x 2 + 10 x 2 + 50 x + 25 x + 125 = x 3 + 15 x 2 + 75 x + 125

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Practice set c

Find the following products and simplify.

( a + 1 ) ( a + 4 )

a 2 + 5 a + 4

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( m 9 ) ( m 2 )

m 2 11 m + 18

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( 2 x + 4 ) ( x + 5 )

2 x 2 + 14 x + 20

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( x + y ) ( 2 x 3 y )

2 x 2 x y 3 y 2

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( 3 a 2 1 ) ( 5 a 2 + a )

15 a 4 + 3 a 3 5 a 2 a

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( 2 x 2 y 3 + x y 2 ) ( 5 x 3 y 2 + x 2 y )

10 x 5 y + 5 7 x 4 y 4 + x 3 y 3

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( a + 3 ) ( a 2 + 3 a + 6 )

a 3 + 6 a 2 + 15 a + 18

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( a + 4 ) ( a + 4 )

a 2 + 8 a + 16

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( r 7 ) ( r 7 )

r 2 14 r + 49

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( x + 6 ) 2

x 2 + 12 x + 36

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( y 8 ) 2

y 2 16 y + 64

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Sample set d

Perform the following additions and subtractions.

3 x + 7 + ( x 3 ) . We must first remove the parentheses . They are preceded by a " + " sign, so we remove them and leave the sign of each term the same . 3 x + 7 + x 3 Combine like terms . 4 x + 4

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5 y 3 + 11 ( 12 y 3 2 ) . We first remove the parentheses . They are preceded by a "-" sign, so we remove them and change the sign of each term inside them . 5 y 3 + 11 12 y 3 + 2 Combine like terms . 7 y 3 + 13

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Add 4 x 2 + 2 x 8 to 3 x 2 7 x 10 .

( 4 x 2 + 2 x 8 ) + ( 3 x 2 7 x 10 ) 4 x 2 + 2 x 8 + 3 x 2 7 x 10 7 x 2 5 x 18

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Subtract 8 x 2 5 x + 2 from 3 x 2 + x 12 .

( 3 x 2 + x 12 ) ( 8 x 2 5 x + 2 ) 3 x 2 + x 12 8 x 2 + 5 x 2 5 x 2 + 6 x 14

Be very careful not to write this problem as

3 x 2 + x 12 8 x 2 5 x + 2

This form has us subtracting only the very first term, 8 x 2 , rather than the entire expression. Use parentheses.
Another incorrect form is

8 x 2 5 x + 2 ( 3 x 2 + x 12 )

This form has us performing the subtraction in the wrong order.

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Practice set d

Perform the following additions and subtractions.

6 y 2 + 2 y 1 + ( 5 y 2 18 )

11 y 2 + 2 y 19

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( 9 m n ) ( 10 m + 12 n )

m 13 n

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Add 2 r 2 + 4 r 1 to 3 r 2 r 7 .

5 r 2 + 3 r 8

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Subtract 4 s 3 from 7 s + 8 .

3 s + 11

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Exercises

For the following problems, perform the multiplications and combine any like terms.

5 ( a 6 )

5 a 30

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9 ( 4 y 3 )

36 y 27

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9 ( a + 7 )

9 a 63

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4 ( x + 2 )

4 x 8

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3 ( a 6 )

3 a + 18

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5 ( 2 a + 1 )

10 a 5

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3 ( 10 y 6 )

30 y + 18

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m ( m 4 )

m 2 4 m

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3 x ( x + 2 )

3 x 2 + 6 x

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6 a ( a 5 )

6 a 2 30 a

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3 x ( 5 x + 4 )

15 x 2 + 12 x

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2 b ( b 1 )

2 b 2 2 b

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3 x 2 ( 5 x 2 + 4 )

15 x 4 + 12 x 2

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4 a 4 ( 5 a 3 + 3 a 2 + 2 a )

20 a 7 + 12 a 6 + 8 a 5

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2 x 4 ( 6 x 3 5 x 2 2 x + 3 )

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5 x 2 ( x + 2 )

5 x 3 10 x 2

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2 x 2 y ( 3 x 2 y 2 6 x )

6 x 4 y 3 12 x 3 y

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8 a 3 b 2 c ( 2 a b 3 + 3 b )

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b 5 x 2 ( 2 b x 11 )

2 b 6 x 3 11 b 5 x 2

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4 x ( 3 x 2 6 x + 10 )

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9 y 3 ( 2 y 4 3 y 3 + 8 y 2 + y 6 )

18 y 7 27 y 6 + 72 y 5 + 9 y 4 54 y 3

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a 2 b 3 ( 6 a b 4 + 5 a b 3 8 b 2 + 7 b 2 )

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( a + 4 ) ( a + 2 )

a 2 + 6 a + 8

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( y + 6 ) ( y 3 )

y 2 + 3 y 18

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( i 3 ) ( i + 5 )

i 2 + 2 i 15

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( 3 a 1 ) ( 2 a 6 )

6 a 2 20 a + 6

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( 5 a 2 ) ( 6 a 8 )

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( 6 y + 11 ) ( 3 y + 10 )

18 y 2 + 93 y + 110

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( 4 + x ) ( 3 x )

x 2 x + 12

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( x 2 + 2 ) ( x + 1 )

x 3 + x 2 + 2 x + 2

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( 3 x 2 5 ) ( 2 x 2 + 1 )

6 x 4 7 x 2 5

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( 4 a 2 b 3 2 a ) ( 5 a 2 b 3 b )

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( 6 x 3 y 4 + 6 x ) ( 2 x 2 y 3 + 5 y )

12 x 5 y 7 + 30 x 3 y 5 + 12 x 3 y 3 + 30 x y

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5 ( x 7 ) ( x 3 )

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4 ( a + 1 ) ( a 8 )

4 a 2 28 a 32

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x ( x + 1 ) ( x + 4 )

x 3 + 5 x 2 + 4 x

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y 3 ( y 3 ) ( y 2 )

y 5 5 y 4 + 6 y 3

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2 a 2 ( a + 4 ) ( a + 3 )

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5 y 6 ( y + 7 ) ( y + 1 )

5 y 8 + 40 y 7 + 35 y 6

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a b 2 ( a 2 2 b ) ( a + b 4 )

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x 3 y 2 ( 5 x 2 y 2 3 ) ( 2 x y 1 )

10 x 6 y 5 5 x 5 y 4 6 x 4 y 3 + 3 x 3 y 2

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8 ( c 3 + 5 c + 11 )

8 c 3 + 40 c + 88

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3 a 2 ( 2 a 3 10 a 2 4 a + 9 )

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6 a 3 b 3 ( 4 a 2 b 6 + 7 a b 8 + 2 b 10 + 14 )

24 a 5 b 9 + 42 a 4 b 11 + 12 a 3 b 13 + 18 a 3 b 3

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( a 4 ) ( a 2 + a 5 )

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( x 7 ) ( x 2 + x 3 )

x 3 6 x 2 10 x + 21

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( 2 x + 1 ) ( 5 x 3 + 6 x 2 + 8 )

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( 7 a 2 + 2 ) ( 3 a 5 4 a 3 a 1 )

21 a 7 22 a 5 15 a 3 7 a 2 2 a 2

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( x + y ) ( 2 x 2 + 3 x y + 5 y 2 )

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( 2 a + b ) ( 5 a 2 + 4 a 2 b b 4 )

10 a 3 + 8 a 3 b + 4 a 2 b 2 + 5 a 2 b b 2 8 a 4 b 2 a b

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( x + 1 ) 2

x 2 + 2 x + 1

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( a + 2 ) 2

a 2 + 4 a + 4

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( 3 x 5 ) 2

9 x 2 + 30 x 25

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For the following problems, perform the indicated operations and combine like terms.

3 x 2 + 5 x 2 + ( 4 x 2 10 x 5 )

7 x 2 5 x 7

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2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x 8 + ( x 3 3 x 2 11 x + 1 )

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5 x 12 x y + 4 y 2 + ( 7 x + 7 x y 2 y 2 )

2 y 2 5 x y 12 x

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( 6 a 2 3 a + 7 ) 4 a 2 + 2 a 8

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( 5 x 2 24 x 15 ) + x 2 9 x + 14

6 x 2 33 x 1

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( 3 x 3 7 x 2 + 2 ) + ( x 3 + 6 )

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( 9 a 2 b 3 a b + 12 a b 2 ) + a b 2 + 2 a b

9 a 2 b + 13 a b 2 a b

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6 x 2 12 x + ( 4 x 2 3 x 1 ) + 4 x 2 10 x 4

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5 a 3 2 a 26 + ( 4 a 3 11 a 2 + 2 a ) 7 a + 8 a 3 + 20

17 a 3 11 a 2 7 a 6

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2 x y 15 ( 5 x y + 4 )

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Add 4 x + 6 to 8 x 15 .

12 x 9

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Add 5 y 2 5 y + 1 to 9 y 2 + 4 y 2 .

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Add 3 ( x + 6 ) to 4 ( x 7 ) .

7 x 10

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Add 2 ( x 2 4 ) to 5 ( x 2 + 3 x 1 ) .

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Add four times 5 x + 2 to three times 2 x 1 .

26 x + 5

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Add five times 3 x + 2 to seven times 4 x + 3 .

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Add 4 times 9 x + 6 to 2 times 8 x 3 .

20 x 18

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Subtract 6 x 2 10 x + 4 from 3 x 2 2 x + 5 .

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Substract a 2 16 from a 2 16 .

0

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Exercises for review

( [link] ) Simplify ( 15 x 2 y 6 5 x y 2 ) 4 .

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( [link] ) Express the number 198,000 using scientific notation.

1.98 × 10 5

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( [link] ) How many 4 a 2 x 3 ' s are there in 16 a 4 x 5 ?

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( [link] ) State the degree of the polynomial 4 x y 3 + 3 x 5 y 5 x 3 y 3 , and write the numerical coefficient of each term.

degree is 6 ; 4 , 3 , 5

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( [link] ) Simplify 3 ( 4 x 5 ) + 2 ( 5 x 2 ) ( x 3 ) .

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Questions & Answers

use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
Seidu
may God blessed u for that. Please I want u to help me in sets.
Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
hi vedant can u help me with some assignments
Solomon
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10614/1.3
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