# 4.4 Poisson distribution  (Page 2/18)

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The formula for computing probabilities that are from a Poisson process is:

$P\left(x\right)=\frac{{\mu }^{x}{e}^{-\mu }}{x!}$

where P(X) is the probability of X successes, μ is the expected number of successes based upon historical data, e is the natural logarithm approximately equal to 2.718, and X is the number of successes per unit, usually per unit of time.

In order to use the Poisson distribution, certain assumptions must hold. These are: the probability of a success, μ, is unchanged within the interval, there cannot be simultaneous successes within the interval, and finally, that the probability of a success among intervals is independent, the same assumption of the binomial distribution.

In a way, the Poisson distribution can be thought of as a clever way to convert a continuous random variable, usually time, into a discrete random variable by breaking up time into discrete independent intervals. This way of thinking about the Poisson helps us understand why it can be used to estimate the probability for the discrete random variable from the binomial distribution. The Poisson is asking for the probability of a number of successes during a period of time while the binomial is asking for the probability of a certain number of successes for a given number of trials.

Leah's answering machine receives about six telephone calls between 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. What is the probability that Leah receives more than one call in the next 15 minutes?

Let X = the number of calls Leah receives in 15 minutes. (The interval of interest is 15 minutes or $\frac{1}{4}$ hour.)

x = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

If Leah receives, on the average, six telephone calls in two hours, and there are eight 15 minute intervals in two hours, then Leah receives

$\left(\frac{1}{8}\right)$ (6) = 0.75 calls in 15 minutes, on average. So, μ = 0.75 for this problem.

X ~ P (0.75)

Find P ( x >1). P ( x >1) = 0.1734

Probability that Leah receives more than one telephone call in the next 15 minutes is about 0.1734.

The graph of X ~ P (0.75) is:

The y -axis contains the probability of x where X = the number of calls in 15 minutes.

According to a survey a university professor gets, on average, 7 emails per day. Let X = the number of emails a professor receives per day. The discrete random variable X takes on the values x = 0, 1, 2 …. The random variable X has a Poisson distribution: X ~ P (7). The mean is 7 emails.

1. What is the probability that an email user receives exactly 2 emails per day?
2. What is the probability that an email user receives at most 2 emails per day?
3. What is the standard deviation?
1. $P\left(x=2\right)=\frac{{\mu }^{x}{e}^{\mathrm{-\mu }}}{\mathrm{x!}}=\frac{{7}^{2}{e}^{-7}}{2!}=0.022$
2. $P\left(x\le 2\right)=\frac{{7}^{0}{e}^{-7}}{0!}+\frac{{7}^{1}{e}^{-7}}{1!}+\frac{{7}^{2}{e}^{-7}}{2!}=0.029$
3. Standard Deviation = $\sigma =\sqrt{\mu }=\sqrt{7}\approx 2.65$

Text message users receive or send an average of 41.5 text messages per day.

1. How many text messages does a text message user receive or send per hour?
2. What is the probability that a text message user receives or sends two messages per hour?
3. What is the probability that a text message user receives or sends more than two messages per hour?
1. Let X = the number of texts that a user sends or receives in one hour. The average number of texts received per hour is $\frac{41.5}{24}$ ≈ 1.7292.
2. $P\left(x=2\right)=\frac{{\mu }^{x}{e}^{\mathrm{-\mu }}}{\mathrm{x!}}=\frac{{1.729}^{2}{e}^{-1.729}}{2!}=0.265$
3. $P\left(x>2\right)=1-P\left(x\le 2\right)=1-\left[\frac{{7}^{0}{e}^{-7}}{0!}+\frac{{7}^{1}{e}^{-7}}{1!}+\frac{{7}^{2}{e}^{-7}}{2!}\right]=0.250$

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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