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    Values

  • Value : A value "refers to a claim about what is worthwhile, what is good. A value is a single word or phrase that identifies something as being desirable for human beings." Brincat and Wike, Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work
  • Justice : Justice as fairness focuses on giving each individual what is his or her due. Three senses of justice are (1) the proper, fair, and proportionate use of sanctions, punishments and disciplinary measures to enforce ethical standards (retributive justice), (2) the objective, dispassionate, and impartial distribution of the benefits and burdens associated with a system of social cooperation (distributive justice), (3) an objectively determined and fairly administered compensation for harms and injustices suffered by individuals (compensatory justice), and (4) a fair and impartial formulation and administration of rules within a given group.
  • Respect : Recognizing and working not to circumvent the autonomy in others and ourselves. (Autonomy is the capacity to make and execute decisions as well as to set forth ends and goals, integrate them into life plans, and use these to constitute active identities.) Respect involves recognizing and respecting rights such as privacy, property, free speech, due process, and free (and informed) consent. Disrespect undermines autonomy through deception, force, or manipulation.
  • Responsibility : The ability to develop moral responses appropriate to the moral issues and problems that arise in one's day-to-day experience. Responsibility includes several senses: (1) individuals are (capacity) responsible when they can be called upon to answer for what they do; (2) individuals have (role) responsibilities when they commit to carry out tasks that arise from social and professional roles; (3) responsibility also refers to the way in which one carries out one's obligations. It can range from indifference and negligence to care and diligence. Responsibility in this sense turns into a virtue that formulates diligence and care as excellences worth striving for.
  • Honesty – Is honesty telling the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? Or is it a virtue that involves a more delicate balance between extremes of excess and defect? Too much honesty results in harmful bluntness and tactlessness. (“Your child is a hopeless slob. You should disown him.” The former may be true but there are gentler and ultimately more productive ways to communicate this information to the concerned parent.) We are all familiar with too little honesty, the dishonesty that results from lying, deceiving, manipulating, exaggerating, distorting, etc.
  • Reasonableness - Defusing disagreement and resolving conflicts through integration. Characteristics include seeking relevant information, listening and responding thoughtfully to others, being open to new ideas, giving reasons for views held, and acknowledging mistakes and misunderstandings. Thus, reasonableness as a virtue includes much more than rationality. (From Michael Pritchard, Reasonable Children)

    In making your decision...

  1. Try to design a solution that realizes as many values as possible.
  2. Wike: “Although values can compete, they don’t conflict.” Try to solve the value competitions in your scenario by integrating the competing values in a solution.
  3. Wike: “No value necessarily overrides any other.”
  4. Wike: “Aim to realize all values, but where that is impossible, enact the most important values and/or the greatest number of values.”

    Having trouble? try this...

  1. Nolo Contendere . Take the path of least resistance. (Just go along with what the dominant person in the situation says.)
  2. Negotiate . Try to persuade those in the situation to accept a value-integrative solution, compromise, or trade off.
  3. Oppose . Someone is trying to force you to so something wrong. Get some courage. Oppose the wrongdoer.
  4. Exit . You can’t win in this situation so find a way of getting out. Let someone else deal with it.
  5. These options can be evaluated and ranked in terms of the values they realize (or don’t realize) and how feasible they are in the given situation.

    Try these ethics tests

  1. REVERSIBILITY : Would I think this a good choice if I were among those affected by it?
  2. PUBLICITY : Would I want this action published in the newspaper?
  3. HARM : Does this action do less harm than any available alternative?
  4. FEASIBILITY : Can this solution be implemented given time, technical, economic, legal, and political constraints?

References

  1. Victoria S. Wike, “Professional Engineering Ethical Behavior: A Values-based Approach”. Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, Session 2461.
  2. Michael S. Pritchard (1996) Reasonable Children: Moral Education and Moral Learning . Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press: 11.
  3. Stephen H. Unger (1994) Controlling Technology: Ethics and the Responsible Engineer . New York: John Wiley and Sons: 315-325 (Reprinted with permission of IEEE)
  4. Robert C. Solomon (1999) A Better Way to Think About Business: How Personal Integrity Leads to Corporate Success . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press: 71-114.
  5. See Onlineethics, www.onlineethics.org, for case on which “Oh, By the Way” is based.

Conclusion

    What have you achieved?

  1. You have become aware of how ethical issues can arise in the job candidacy process.
  2. You have a better of your obligations and rights in the job candicacy process.
  3. You have practiced decision making by evaluating and ranking solutions to ethics cases.
  4. You have worked with integrating important ethical values into solutions to ethical problems.

Presentation of module before mechanical engineering class

Presentation: being an ethical job candidate

This figure contains a powerpoint presentation of this module used in a Mechanical Engineering Capstone Design course during Spring and Fall semesters, 2007.

Gray matters in job searches

This word file presents four of the above scenarios in Gray Matters form. It provides a useful handout as well as an abbreviated version of this activity.

Presentation: nov 2010

Presentation february 2012

Workshop exercises

Questions & Answers

what's a psy.d degree
Robin Reply
Psychology Doctorate. The main difference between PsyD and PhD Psychology is that PsyD mainly focuses on clinical sessions and PhD focuses on research.
Shrajan
so most of the phd holders become professors teaching what they have learnt
Bridget
Hi, I have a question. What factors influence social facilitation and social inhibition in groups?
Amritpal Reply
it really depends on that person on how the can task in life either they can work better with other people or you do worse working with people.
Lametra
the task
Lametra
they task
Lametra
Do you know of any studies done to show social facilitation and social inhibition
Amritpal
social facilitation is often influenced by the person's perception of the situation and their appraisal of the task. for example, a track athlete who views their competition as a challenge rather than a threat, will tend to run the fastest they have ever ran under a large crowd.
fady
Another condition is if the person has mastered the ability to perform that task. A track athlete who trains everyday, will perform above average under a large crowd, however, someone who does not run, will tend to do worse than their actual ability under a large crowd
fady
social inhibition can be explained through evolutionary biology or attachment personality theory. some people develop an avoidance personality trait, which when they feel under pressure, they tend to leave the group or avoid a gathering due to high lev of stress
fady
Does anyone know how I can transfer my higher national diploma credits in usa?
Qwanta Reply
Oh wow. I never realised there was a chat on this app!
Amritpal Reply
Then welcome dearest
Bridget
Thank you! ❤️
Amritpal
thank you
Ana
Hello Ana, good afternoon from here
Philip Reply
hello im new student here.
Junalyn Reply
o sorry madm
Rai
hello
Rai
I m also student.
Rai
hi
Kavya
what is easier option to psychology?
Dhanaraj
I'm new too
Deniz
As in the the specialisation or ?
Bridget
good morning
Ana
understanding human nature is what we are going to talk about.
Ana
okay, go ahead
Philip
“ Every child is left to evaluate his experiences for himself, and to take care of his own personal development outside the classroom. There is no tradition for the acquisition of a true knowledge of the human psyche. The science of human nature thus finds itself today in the position that chemis
Ana
well, I think every individual is different and to a great extent we can't say confidently that we understand the human nature in its entirety
Philip
lack determines what we will become in life?.
Ana
Not 100% but it plays a huge role
Philip
Hi! I wasn't aware there was a chat feature on this app 😊
Ophelia
👍Philip Anyaegbu
Ana
cool
Ana
👍
Ana
yes Ana I'm here
Philip
alternatively we are different, we have basic similar qualities
Bridget
Yes true Bridget.
Philip
hello there
Ciel
Hi
Philip
hi
Ej
hi
KUNDAN
hi
Ana
who we are how we think what we do insight
Ana
@ bridget. yes that's true
Ana
Ana ioanidis? do you speak Greek?
Qwanta
Qwanta no I dont speak Greek my husband does
Ana
are you a psychologist? or your husband?
Qwanta
I need some reliable informations about my studies...
Qwanta
not a psychologist
Ana
I ask questions
Ana
so what is the cause why a person experiences a psychological disorder if it not of their own?
Junalyn Reply
it's partly genetics,culture, environment and substance abuse. generally these are the common factors which can lead to most of the disorders
war
waoo
Rai
r u proficcer
Rai
u r psychology subject
Rai
not a professor but a clinical psychologist
war
can i ask you, i keep getting headache, and had a history of hypothyroid ans diagnosed as having mild anxiety disorder. i want to finish. my undergraduate psychology thesis.. but always unable to have good ambition and energy to focus on writing the case and the theories... whats the best remedy
Astaroxche
had a headache and have a history
Ana
297 according to the DSM 5
fady
how many disorders are there
Janareon Reply
interesting question
Mahmoud
it is😅
Nelly
I'm guessing it's in the tens of thousands, maybe hundreds if you include counter interactions and stuff like it. although I'm sure it's almost impossible to know for sure, unless you're very rich and connected to the right people. but as I said: guessing.
Beenie
There are more than 200 classified forms of mental illness. Some of the more common disorders are: clinical depression, bipolar disorder, dementia, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. Symptoms may include changes in mood, personality, personal habits and/or social withdrawal. that is what I think
Mahmoud
too difficult to number. diagnosing a disorder is just checking off boxes on a compilation of symptoms that might match any particular condition on the DSM
what is psychology of the guest
Lirilong Reply
I don't understand the question can you elaborate?
Edgar
the study of philosophy gives to the sociologist
Aman Reply
why women are viewed as far more emotional than men?
Wario Reply
because they actually are ,I guess.
Collins
May be they are biologically milder than man. It does not mean they are not equal with man. Man can also be emotional and can are oppressed with traditional norms. For example, man are not to be cry, in actual man are also emotional being and they cannot have the right to show their sentiment.
shine
sollungal bro sollungal...
Balaji
because of she has hormonal fluctuations than men..
bavi
usually women are more emotional than men and they are multi talented people
lavanya
Both men and women are capable of expressing emotions. But women has the highest percentage of doing that. Because our society is conditioned by nature in such a way that men are expected to suppress their emotions and motivate them through their acts or thoughts, which has it's side effects of....
Santos
denial of any emotion which they feel that useless at that point. Women in the other hand were encouraged/not controlled to suppress their emotions and let them out what they feel about it. I feel that's the wonderful superpower of the women.
Santos
y
Mahmoud
Men's emotion comes mostly with memories triggered by senses. That means, they thoughts have the power to decide whether to let go of emotions or not.
Santos
Q
Mark
because women tend to be more agreeable than men.
Edgar
women at a young age are conditioned to be more in tune with emotion than man should be less
David
The question is "Why women Viewed are as far more emotional than men ?" it's not a question whether women are more emotional than men. This is more an issue about the point of view from the observer, his/her assumption what emotional behavior is or what emotional behavior is.
Mehmet
The anwers are answers more to the question " Are women more emotional than men?"
Mehmet
hi are you on what'sap
Wunuji Reply
no not really a fan of social laziness
Robert
huh
Parmizan
is there any way for a Btech E.C.E. graduate to take on MSC. PSYCHOLOGY
devesh
ya you can just by cracking entrance , if in India
Mansi
Any stream in UG can go for M.Sc (Psychology)
classification of traits and how they are measured
chinedu Reply
what was Freud's first name?
Robin Reply
Sigmund
Dentriodite
sigmund
Margie
Sigismund Schlomo Freud
Mohammad
Sigmund Freud
Talal
sigmund
Ankita
Leon Vygotsky and Sergei Rubenstein please tell me contributions of these personalities in in 4 lines
Uzma
sigmund Freud
Harpreet
Lev Vygotsky was the founder of socio-cultural theory
Jo
So psychology was based off of the Greek gods I that right or no?
Tanya Reply
psychology is the study. anything -ology is the study of a certain field. Psyche is a mortal woman who becomes divine in Greek mythology. The etymology of the word "psyche" in Greek means "spirit" or "soul"
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Source:  OpenStax, Business ethics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 04, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10491/1.11
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