



Evaluating a natural logarithm using a calculator
Evaluate
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=\mathrm{ln}\left(500\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to four decimal places using a calculator.
 Press
[LN] .
 Enter
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}500,$ followed by
[ ) ] .
 Press
[ENTER] .
Rounding to four decimal places,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{ln}(500)\approx 6.2146$
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Key equations
Definition of the logarithmic function 
For
$\text{}x0,b0,b\ne 1,$
$y={\mathrm{log}}_{b}\left(x\right)\text{}$ if and only if
$\text{}{b}^{y}=x.$ 
Definition of the common logarithm 
For
$\text{}x0,$
$y=\mathrm{log}\left(x\right)\text{}$ if and only if
$\text{}{10}^{y}=x.$ 
Definition of the natural logarithm 
For
$\text{}x0,$
$y=\mathrm{ln}\left(x\right)\text{}$ if and only if
$\text{}{e}^{y}=x.$ 
Key concepts
 The inverse of an exponential function is a logarithmic function, and the inverse of a logarithmic function is an exponential function.
 Logarithmic equations can be written in an equivalent exponential form, using the definition of a logarithm. See
[link] .
 Exponential equations can be written in their equivalent logarithmic form using the definition of a logarithm See
[link] .
 Logarithmic functions with base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ can be evaluated mentally using previous knowledge of powers of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See
[link] and
[link] .
 Common logarithms can be evaluated mentally using previous knowledge of powers of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}10.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See
[link]
.
 When common logarithms cannot be evaluated mentally, a calculator can be used. See
[link]
.
 Realworld exponential problems with base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}10\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ can be rewritten as a common logarithm and then evaluated using a calculator. See
[link]
.
 Natural logarithms can be evaluated using a calculator
[link]
.
Section exercises
Verbal
What is a base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ logarithm? Discuss the meaning by interpreting each part of the equivalent equations
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{b}^{y}=x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{b}x=y\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ for
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b>0,b\ne 1.$
A logarithm is an exponent. Specifically, it is the exponent to which a base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is raised to produce a given value. In the expressions given, the base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ has the same value. The exponent,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y,$ in the expression
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{b}^{y}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ can also be written as the logarithm,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{b}x,$ and the value of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the result of raising
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to the power of
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y.$
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How is the logarithmic function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f(x)={\mathrm{log}}_{b}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ related to the exponential function
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g(x)={b}^{x}?\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ What is the result of composing these two functions?
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How can the logarithmic equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{b}x=y\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ be solved for
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ using the properties of exponents?
Since the equation of a logarithm is equivalent to an exponential equation, the logarithm can be converted to the exponential equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{b}^{y}=x,$ and then properties of exponents can be applied to solve for
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$
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Discuss the meaning of the common logarithm. What is its relationship to a logarithm with base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b,$ and how does the notation differ?
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Discuss the meaning of the natural logarithm. What is its relationship to a logarithm with base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b,$ and how does the notation differ?
The natural logarithm is a special case of the logarithm with base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ in that the natural log always has base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Rather than notating the natural logarithm as
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{e}\left(x\right),$ the notation used is
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{ln}\left(x\right).$
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Algebraic
For the following exercises, rewrite each equation in exponential form.
Questions & Answers
can I get some pretty basic questions
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
Ama
is precalculus needed to take caculus
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
Spiro
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
what is the domain of f(x)=x4/x^22x15 then
x is different from 5&3
Seid
how to prroved cos⁴xsin⁴x= cos²xsin²x are equal
Don't think that you can.
Elliott
how do you provided cos⁴xsin⁴x = cos²xsin²x are equal
What are the question marks for?
Elliott
Someone should please solve it for me
Add 2over ×+3 +y4 over 5
simplify (×+a)with square root of two ×root 2 all over a
multiply 1over ×y{(×y)(×+y)} over ×y
For the first question, I got (3y2)/15
Second one, I got Root 2
Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power)
I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Abena
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=2
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method.
2x+y=4
Ashley
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x2
UriEl
y=mx+b
you were already given the 'm' and 'b'.
so..
y=3x2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line.
where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the yaxis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
0=3x2
2=3x
x=3/2
then .
y=3/2X2
I think
Given
co ordinates for x
x=0,(2,0)
x=1,(1,1)
x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
x=b+_Гb2(4ac)
______________
2a
I've run into this:
x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2)
Which expands to:
x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2)  sin(angle1)*sin(angle2))
The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes:
(r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1)  (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1))
How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
Brad
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis
vice versa with y=x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As
'f(x)=y'.
According to Google,
"The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks.
"Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas
i do not understand anything
unknown
lol...it gets better
Darius
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
Tiffany
how to solve polynomial using a calculator
Source:
OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
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