# 4.3 Energy in electromagnetic waves  (Page 4/6)

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Integrated Concepts

Police radar determines the speed of motor vehicles using the same Doppler-shift technique employed for ultrasound in medical diagnostics. Beats are produced by mixing the double Doppler-shifted echo with the original frequency. If $1\text{.}\text{50}×{\text{10}}^{9}\text{-Hz}$ microwaves are used and a beat frequency of 150 Hz is produced, what is the speed of the vehicle? (Assume the same Doppler-shift formulas are valid with the speed of sound replaced by the speed of light.)

Integrated Concepts

Assume the mostly infrared radiation from a heat lamp acts like a continuous wave with wavelength $1.50\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mu \text{m}$ . (a) If the lamp’s 200-W output is focused on a person’s shoulder, over a circular area 25.0 cm in diameter, what is the intensity in ${\text{W/m}}^{2}$ ? (b) What is the peak electric field strength? (c) Find the peak magnetic field strength. (d) How long will it take to increase the temperature of the 4.00-kg shoulder by $2.00º C$ , assuming no other heat transfer and given that its specific heat is $3\text{.}\text{47}×{\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J/kg}\cdot \text{ºC}$ ?

(a) $4\text{.}\text{07 k}{\text{W/m}}^{2}$

(b) 1.75 kV/m

(c) $5\text{.}\text{84}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mu \text{T}$

(d) 2 min 19 s

Integrated Concepts

On its highest power setting, a microwave oven increases the temperature of 0.400 kg of spaghetti by $\text{45}\text{.}0º\text{C}$ in 120 s. (a) What was the rate of power absorption by the spaghetti, given that its specific heat is $3\text{.}\text{76}×{\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J/kg}\cdot \text{ºC}$ ? (b) Find the average intensity of the microwaves, given that they are absorbed over a circular area 20.0 cm in diameter. (c) What is the peak electric field strength of the microwave? (d) What is its peak magnetic field strength?

Integrated Concepts

Electromagnetic radiation from a 5.00-mW laser is concentrated on a $1\text{.}\text{00}{\text{-mm}}^{2}$ area. (a) What is the intensity in ${\text{W/m}}^{2}$ ? (b) Suppose a 2.00-nC static charge is in the beam. What is the maximum electric force it experiences? (c) If the static charge moves at 400 m/s, what maximum magnetic force can it feel?

(a) $5\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{W/m}}^{2}$

(b) $3\text{.}\text{88}×{\text{10}}^{-6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$

(c) $5\text{.}\text{18}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{12}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$

Integrated Concepts

A 200-turn flat coil of wire 30.0 cm in diameter acts as an antenna for FM radio at a frequency of 100 MHz. The magnetic field of the incoming electromagnetic wave is perpendicular to the coil and has a maximum strength of $1\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{12}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{T}$ . (a) What power is incident on the coil? (b) What average emf is induced in the coil over one-fourth of a cycle? (c) If the radio receiver has an inductance of $2\text{.}\text{50}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mu H$ , what capacitance must it have to resonate at 100 MHz?

Integrated Concepts

If electric and magnetic field strengths vary sinusoidally in time, being zero at $t=0$ , then $E={E}_{0}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}2\pi \text{ft}$ and $B={B}_{0}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}2\pi \text{ft}$ . Let $f=1\text{.}\text{00 GHz}$ here. (a) When are the field strengths first zero? (b) When do they reach their most negative value? (c) How much time is needed for them to complete one cycle?

(a) $t=0$

(b) $7\text{.}\text{50}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{10}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{s}$

(c) $1\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{-9}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{s}$

Unreasonable Results

A researcher measures the wavelength of a 1.20-GHz electromagnetic wave to be 0.500 m. (a) Calculate the speed at which this wave propagates. (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumptions are unreasonable or inconsistent?

Unreasonable Results

The peak magnetic field strength in a residential microwave oven is $9\text{.}\text{20}×{\text{10}}^{-5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{T}$ . (a) What is the intensity of the microwave? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) What is wrong about the premise?

(a) $1\text{.}\text{01}×{\text{10}}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{W/m}}^{2}$

(b) Much too great for an oven.

(c) The assumed magnetic field is unreasonably large.

Unreasonable Results

An $\text{LC}$ circuit containing a 2.00-H inductor oscillates at such a frequency that it radiates at a 1.00-m wavelength. (a) What is the capacitance of the circuit? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumptions are unreasonable or inconsistent?

Unreasonable Results

An $\text{LC}$ circuit containing a 1.00-pF capacitor oscillates at such a frequency that it radiates at a 300-nm wavelength. (a) What is the inductance of the circuit? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumptions are unreasonable or inconsistent?

(a) $2\text{.}\text{53}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{20}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}H$

(b) L is much too small.

(c) The wavelength is unreasonably small.

Consider electromagnetic fields produced by high voltage power lines. Construct a problem in which you calculate the intensity of this electromagnetic radiation in ${\text{W/m}}^{2}$ based on the measured magnetic field strength of the radiation in a home near the power lines. Assume these magnetic field strengths are known to average less than a $\mu T$ . The intensity is small enough that it is difficult to imagine mechanisms for biological damage due to it. Discuss how much energy may be radiating from a section of power line several hundred meters long and compare this to the power likely to be carried by the lines. An idea of how much power this is can be obtained by calculating the approximate current responsible for $\mu T$ fields at distances of tens of meters.

Consider the most recent generation of residential satellite dishes that are a little less than half a meter in diameter. Construct a problem in which you calculate the power received by the dish and the maximum electric field strength of the microwave signals for a single channel received by the dish. Among the things to be considered are the power broadcast by the satellite and the area over which the power is spread, as well as the area of the receiving dish.

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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