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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

Trading in africa’s ancient kingdoms

Module 16

Early settlements in south africa

Meanwhile, what happened in our country? People first started practising agriculture in the present South Africa approximately 2000 years ago. With farming activities spreading from the coastal areas to the river valleys on the central plateau, farmers were obliged to adapt their implements, weapons, and clothing to changing situations. All those living in the small farming communities more or less had equal power and wealth and prosperous towns developed in time, due to the expansion of trading in cattle, ivory, gold, etc.

The earliest farmers south of the Limpopo River lived along the Indian Ocean coastline where the climate was mild, the rainfall adequate and the soil fertile. They cultivated grains and stored their harvests in pots and also gathered seafood. However by 1000 A.D., many settlements had been established in the interior.

We are going to find out more about three interesting settlements, namely those at Mzonjani, Broederstroom and the Boomplaas cave. But first take some time to study the time line and the map.

Activity 1:

To arrange events concerning the early settlements in our country in the correct sequence

[lo 2.1]

Connect column A and B by only writing the correct symbol from column B in column A.

Column A Column B
1. 0 A. Gold trade of Mapungubwe takes place
2. 250 A.D. B. First Indians settle in “SA”
3. 400 A.D.600 A.D. C. Dutch under Jan van Riebeeck settle at the Cape
4. 1050 A.D. D. Birth of Christ San and Khoina in “S.A.” already
5. 1200 A.D. E. Agricultural towns such as Mzonjani and Broederstroom already exist (See map on this page)
6. 1652 F. Farming spreads to the interior Black farmers have already settled in the river valley of “Natal"
7. 1860 G. Black farmers settle in the highveld
  • When the first farmers arrived in Southern Africa, they settled in the densely forested and bushy areas along the coast. This area was suited to slash and burn agriculture, which meant that trees were cut down and new fields were cleared whenever current agricultural plots stopped yielding good crops.
  • Once farming had been established along the coastal area, farmers started moving inland along the valleys and large rivers to the fertile plains of the interior.

Activity 2:

To use sources to obtain relevant information about the early settlements

[lo 1.3]


  • Traders from North Africa and the East sailed southwards along the eastern coast of Africa and discovered that Africa yielded a vast number of products. Gold and ivory were exchanged for beads and cloth.

Quite recently a group of road engineers who were busy building a new road north of Durban stopped their work for days on end to allow archaeologists to do archaeological excavations after bulldozers had revealed shards of ancient pottery. The excavation revealed more pottery shards, seashells, stones, animal bones and iron screws.

This was identified as the site of Mzonjani, one of the well-known agricultural villages of Southern Africa. People driving along the N2 highway approximately 20 km north of Durban drive over this site every day without realising that a Southern African village dating from about 280 A.D. was situated here.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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