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RHEED Gun-Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction Gun gives a beam of electron which can be made incident on the epitaxially grown film. The diffraction pattern of electrons is studied on the fluorescent screen. This shows a maximum when there is a completed monolayer and a minimum when there is a partial layer as this produces more scattering. Thus RHEED Gun is used for in-situ monitoring of the growth of the epitaxial film mono-layer by mono-layer.

Computer controlled shutters of each furnace allows precise control of the thickness of each layer, down to a single layer of atoms.

Substrate Heating- to obtain high quality epitaxial layer, growth temperature must be relatively high. The substrate wafer must be heated to allow the atoms to move about the surface and reach the proper ordered site. Growth must be at a temperature where growth rate is insensitive of minor temperature variation. Atoms arriving at the substrate surface may undergo absorption to the surface, surface migration, incorporation into the crystal lattice, and thermal desorption. Which of the competing pathways dominates the growth will depend strongly on the temperature of the substrate. At a low temperature, atoms will stick where they land without arranging properly - leading to poor crystal quality. At a high temperature, atoms will desorb (reevaporate) from the surface too readily - leading to low growth rates and poor crystal quality. In the appropriate intermediate temperature range, the atoms will have sufficient energy to move to the proper position on the surface and be incorporated into the growing crystal.

The Inventors of MBE are : J.R. Arthur and Alfred Y. Chuo (Bell Labs, 1960).

MBE is a technique for epitaxial growth of single crystal atomic layer films on single crystal substrate. It gives precise control in chemical composition and doping profiles. To avoid contamination of the epitaxial films, Ultra High Vacuum within MBE chamber is imperative. It requires Very/Ultra high vacuum (10 -8 Pa or 10 -11 Torr). This implies that Epitaxial film is grown at slow deposition rate (1 micron/hour). This permits epitaxial growth of single atomic layer if desired. Slow deposition rates require proportionally better vacuum. Ultra-pure elements are heated in separate quasi-knudson effusion cells (e.g., Ga and As) until they begin to slowly sublimate. Gaseous elements then condense on the wafer, where they may react with each other (e.g., GaAs). The term “beam” in MBE means the evaporated atoms do not interact with each other or with other vacuum chamber gases until they reach the wafer. Each gas beam may be turned on and off rapidly with a shutter or a valve. Beam intensity (called the flux) is adjusted for precise control of layer composition. A collection of gas molecules moving in the same direction constitute the molecular beam. Simplest way to generate a molecular beam is Effusion cell or Knudsen cell . Oven contains the material to make the beam. Oven is connected to a vacuum system through a hole. The substrate is located with a line-of-sight to the oven aperture. From kinetic theory, the flow through the aperture is simply the molecular impingement rate on the area of the orifice. Impingement rate is: The total flux through the hole. The spatial distribution of molecules from the orifice of a knudsen cell is normally a cosine distribution. The intensity drops off as the square of the distance from the orifice. Intensity is maximum in the direction normal to the orifice and decreases with increasing θ, which causes problems. Use collimator, a barrier with a small hole; it intercepts all of the flow except for that traveling towards the sample.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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