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Back to Europe: A.D. 1301 to 1400

At 1401 there was no dominant state in Europe. Germany and Italy were fragmented and the eastern empires of Casimir IV of Poland and Corvinus of Hungary developed late in the century and even then were ephemeral. The Iberian Peninsula had civil war and France had the Burgundians and Armagnacs feuding. Prolonged climate deterioration began about 1450, starting the "Little Ice Age", which lasted up to the first of the 19th century. (Ref. 8 , 224 ) In spite of all this, after about 1450 Europe began to recover from the prolonged disasters and deficiencies of the previous 100 years. (Ref. 292 )

Slavery had almost ceased in Europe until Portugal revived the custom in the latter half of the century, with the blacks from Africa. (Ref. 213 ) Movable type printing gradually came into use so that by 1500 some 236 towns in Europe had their own print shops (11). As Braudel (Ref. 260 ) states, the printing press expanded and invigorated everything. For centuries there had been two different European navies - the Mediterranean and the northern - but with increased trade and intermingling, the clinker construction and centerline rudder of the northern ships began to appear in the Mediterranean, while the southern lanteen rig went north and Europe began to emerge more as a single civilization. Vehicles with a moveable front axle, first used in gun carriages, were only employed after about 1470. As populations increased and artillery made their old walls useless, 15th century towns began to face serious problems. New, wide ramparts filled with earth (and thus hardly movable) had to be constructed and then large open spaces in front of these fortifications were necessary, eliminating gardens and trees. (Ref. 260 )

Methods of exchange of goods had changed considerably by this century. Essentially only towns (or very large villages) now had markets. The western town controlled everything and the market, held usually once or twice a week, was one of its chief mechanisms. The surrounding countryside needed time to produce and collect goods and then divert some individuals, usually women, to sell the produce. On the seas, ships had increased enormously in size and were no longer individually owned, as shares were sold. The money market moved towards Holland and later London. (Ref. 292 )

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

Venice continued her domination of most of the Mediterranean and added the island of Cyprus to her possessions in this century. (Ref. 38 ) The exception was Rhodes, which remained under control of the Knights Hospitallers.


Early in the century Greece was divided between Ottomans, Venice, some Latin States and a small area still belonging to Byzantium. By late century all had been pushed out by the Ottoman Turks except for a few coastal islands which were still controlled by Venice. In the next century or two many Greek men actually functioned as Ottoman generals and officials. (Ref. 137 )

Upper balkans

Early on the bulk of the Balkans were under Turkish domination with the exceptions of Romania, which was a part of Hungary, and the Principality of Moldavia. Albania was taken by the Ottomans in 1430 and by 1436 the entire peninsula was Turkish. Their attempted invasion of Hungary began in 1439. Merchant Sicilians (Ragusans) were the chief westerners to penetrate this Balkan Turkish territory. (Ref. 292 )

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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