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Europe

Back to Europe: A.D. 1301 to 1400

At 1401 there was no dominant state in Europe. Germany and Italy were fragmented and the eastern empires of Casimir IV of Poland and Corvinus of Hungary developed late in the century and even then were ephemeral. The Iberian Peninsula had civil war and France had the Burgundians and Armagnacs feuding. Prolonged climate deterioration began about 1450, starting the "Little Ice Age", which lasted up to the first of the 19th century. (Ref. 8 , 224 ) In spite of all this, after about 1450 Europe began to recover from the prolonged disasters and deficiencies of the previous 100 years. (Ref. 292 )

Slavery had almost ceased in Europe until Portugal revived the custom in the latter half of the century, with the blacks from Africa. (Ref. 213 ) Movable type printing gradually came into use so that by 1500 some 236 towns in Europe had their own print shops (11). As Braudel (Ref. 260 ) states, the printing press expanded and invigorated everything. For centuries there had been two different European navies - the Mediterranean and the northern - but with increased trade and intermingling, the clinker construction and centerline rudder of the northern ships began to appear in the Mediterranean, while the southern lanteen rig went north and Europe began to emerge more as a single civilization. Vehicles with a moveable front axle, first used in gun carriages, were only employed after about 1470. As populations increased and artillery made their old walls useless, 15th century towns began to face serious problems. New, wide ramparts filled with earth (and thus hardly movable) had to be constructed and then large open spaces in front of these fortifications were necessary, eliminating gardens and trees. (Ref. 260 )

Methods of exchange of goods had changed considerably by this century. Essentially only towns (or very large villages) now had markets. The western town controlled everything and the market, held usually once or twice a week, was one of its chief mechanisms. The surrounding countryside needed time to produce and collect goods and then divert some individuals, usually women, to sell the produce. On the seas, ships had increased enormously in size and were no longer individually owned, as shares were sold. The money market moved towards Holland and later London. (Ref. 292 )

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

Venice continued her domination of most of the Mediterranean and added the island of Cyprus to her possessions in this century. (Ref. 38 ) The exception was Rhodes, which remained under control of the Knights Hospitallers.

Greece

Early in the century Greece was divided between Ottomans, Venice, some Latin States and a small area still belonging to Byzantium. By late century all had been pushed out by the Ottoman Turks except for a few coastal islands which were still controlled by Venice. In the next century or two many Greek men actually functioned as Ottoman generals and officials. (Ref. 137 )

Upper balkans

Early on the bulk of the Balkans were under Turkish domination with the exceptions of Romania, which was a part of Hungary, and the Principality of Moldavia. Albania was taken by the Ottomans in 1430 and by 1436 the entire peninsula was Turkish. Their attempted invasion of Hungary began in 1439. Merchant Sicilians (Ragusans) were the chief westerners to penetrate this Balkan Turkish territory. (Ref. 292 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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