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Magnus II became the Swedish king in 1319 at the age of three years, with his mother as regent and effective ruler. Through his mother Magnus also succeeded to the Norwegian crown and during a troubled period in Denmark actually gained Scania, Halland, and Bleking temporarily for Sweden. Even after he assumed the reign for himself, there was a definite weakening of the royal power and a rise of the aristocracy. The first meeting of the Riksdag, which included nobles and burghers, was in 1359. By 1363 Magnus was deposed and succeeded by Albert of Mecklenburg, who was always a tool of the nobility. They eventually dethroned him in 1388, calling in Margaret, already Queen of Norway and regent of Denmark, thus uniting all three countries. Officially she formed the Union of Kalmar in 1387 under the name of her grand-nephew and adopted son, Eric of Pomerania, but she retained the effective power. Additional Notes


The successful reign of Eric Menved ended in 1320 by capitulation and Christopher II was elected, with limitations laid down by the nobility and clergy. In 1340 Christopher was driven from the throne by Gerhard, Count of Holstein. This was indicative of the dominance of the German Hansa towns in Danish politics at that time. From 1332 to 1340 Denmark was in a state of anarchy, with no king and actually ruled by German Counts from adjacent territories. The Scanian provinces across the sound placed themselves under the Swedish king, Magnus Smek, as a separate province. But then came Valdemar IV, the youngest son of Christopher, to take the throne as one of the greatest Danish kings. The Church was subordinated to the royal power and the nobles and towns were made to perform their military obligations as Valdemar reconquered the territories lost by his father, in wars with Sweden, Holstein and Schleswig. In 1361 he even took on the Hansa. Copenhagen was sacked but the Danes defeated the Hansa fleets in 1362 at Helsingborg.

Valdemar had been raised at the Imperial German court as a European man of fashion; his wife was a Schlesvig princess. Although not liked much by the Danes, he ruled efficiently. During his reign he sold Estonia to German nobles, then conquered the Goths of Gotland, an island in the Baltic which was actually a part of Sweden although controlled by the Hanseatic League. The second war with the Hansa occurred from 1368 to 1370 and this time the League was supported by Sweden, Norway, Holstein, Mecklenburg and even by some of the Danish nobles. Badly defeated, Valdemar accepted the Peace of Stralsund which again made the Hansa supreme in the Baltic. Valdemar's grandson, Olaf, ruled from 1376, under the regency of his mother, Margaret, until his death in 1387 when Margaret became queen, ruling also in Norway and Sweden. (See map, page 726)


After 30 years of being the battle field for war between Sweden and Russia, in 1323 a boundary treaty was drawn up and solemnized and Finland became a true province of Sweden, remaining so for the next 500 years.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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