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Sweden

Magnus II became the Swedish king in 1319 at the age of three years, with his mother as regent and effective ruler. Through his mother Magnus also succeeded to the Norwegian crown and during a troubled period in Denmark actually gained Scania, Halland, and Bleking temporarily for Sweden. Even after he assumed the reign for himself, there was a definite weakening of the royal power and a rise of the aristocracy. The first meeting of the Riksdag, which included nobles and burghers, was in 1359. By 1363 Magnus was deposed and succeeded by Albert of Mecklenburg, who was always a tool of the nobility. They eventually dethroned him in 1388, calling in Margaret, already Queen of Norway and regent of Denmark, thus uniting all three countries. Officially she formed the Union of Kalmar in 1387 under the name of her grand-nephew and adopted son, Eric of Pomerania, but she retained the effective power. Additional Notes

Denmark

The successful reign of Eric Menved ended in 1320 by capitulation and Christopher II was elected, with limitations laid down by the nobility and clergy. In 1340 Christopher was driven from the throne by Gerhard, Count of Holstein. This was indicative of the dominance of the German Hansa towns in Danish politics at that time. From 1332 to 1340 Denmark was in a state of anarchy, with no king and actually ruled by German Counts from adjacent territories. The Scanian provinces across the sound placed themselves under the Swedish king, Magnus Smek, as a separate province. But then came Valdemar IV, the youngest son of Christopher, to take the throne as one of the greatest Danish kings. The Church was subordinated to the royal power and the nobles and towns were made to perform their military obligations as Valdemar reconquered the territories lost by his father, in wars with Sweden, Holstein and Schleswig. In 1361 he even took on the Hansa. Copenhagen was sacked but the Danes defeated the Hansa fleets in 1362 at Helsingborg.

Valdemar had been raised at the Imperial German court as a European man of fashion; his wife was a Schlesvig princess. Although not liked much by the Danes, he ruled efficiently. During his reign he sold Estonia to German nobles, then conquered the Goths of Gotland, an island in the Baltic which was actually a part of Sweden although controlled by the Hanseatic League. The second war with the Hansa occurred from 1368 to 1370 and this time the League was supported by Sweden, Norway, Holstein, Mecklenburg and even by some of the Danish nobles. Badly defeated, Valdemar accepted the Peace of Stralsund which again made the Hansa supreme in the Baltic. Valdemar's grandson, Olaf, ruled from 1376, under the regency of his mother, Margaret, until his death in 1387 when Margaret became queen, ruling also in Norway and Sweden. (See map, page 726)

Finland

After 30 years of being the battle field for war between Sweden and Russia, in 1323 a boundary treaty was drawn up and solemnized and Finland became a true province of Sweden, remaining so for the next 500 years.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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Loga
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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