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In any VRE, there are some components that are generic and can potentially be used by researchers in many disciplines. A wide range of commoditised components and systems are available and efforts are underway to develop interoperability frameworks to foster flexible integration to form seamless collaborative work environments (Voss et al . 2007). This offers the opportunity for reuse on a large scale and thereby to avoid duplication of effort where supporting tools already exist. For example, synchronous and asynchronous collaboration support can be provided through integration of tools like instant messaging, Access Grid (www.accessgrid.org), EVO (evo.caltech.edu), wikis, blogs, feeds etc. Likewise, generic tools for the management of job submissions to computational grids or for the management of data in storage resource brokers exist and are quite mature and stable. Their general applicability leads to wide support for their development and, consequently, it does not make sense to re-invent them.

In addition, re-use of components also facilitates the re-use of skills on the side of technology and service providers as well as on the side of the end user. If every environment came with its own authentication system, for example, this would hinder uptake significantly, so re-use of common solutions such as Shibboleth supported by a large access management federation is clearly important. In effect, the tools and services making up a VRE should become part of the seen-but-unnoticed e-Infrastructure that enables researchers to collaborate with their peers easily and without having to pay much attention to the technology.

More specific support, however, for the management and conduct of specific research tasks will require configuration and adaptation of tools as well as the development of new ones. In order to maximise reuse in the light of heterogeneous requirements, a modular approach is needed that leaves the user in charge of managing their research environment and provides support for this through automated processes such as service and tool discovery. Inevitably, there will be a point when technical support staff will need to intervene. These interventions should be supported by the system in a way that enables users to learn and become more independent in the future.

The nature of research means that VREs will require constant adaptation to fit the specific research projects being undertaken. As research thrives on a constant modification of its practices, it is likely that new functionality will be required that is not already available. At the same time, economic pressures and the fact that some aspects of research are routine mean that existing functionality needs to be made use of and adapted wherever possible. What is required is a close collaboration between researchers on the one hand and technology and service providers on the other to establish configurations of technologies and social arrangements that allow the researchers to focus on the innovative aspects without having to concern themselves with technical details.

Creating an integrated e-Research experience fundamentally relies on the creation of communities of service providers, tool builders and researchers working together to develop specific support for research tasks as well as the creation of a technical and organisational platform for integrating these tools into an overall research process.

Conclusions

The vision of e-Research argues persuasively for the need to generate, keep and re-use an expanding range and volume of research resources. VREs are crucial to e-Research because they are the sites where these resources will be both consumed and created. VREs are also the sites of experiments in scholarly communications, which have the potential to transform their conduct.

References

Berman, F., Fox, G. and Hey, T. (eds.) (2003), Grid Computing: Making the Global Infrastructure a Reality . John Wiley and Sons.

Borda, A. et al . (2006), “Report of the Working Group on Virtual Research Communities for the OST e-Infrastructure Steering Group”, London, UK, Office of Science and Technology, available at (External Link) (accessed 12.02.2009)

Brown, S. and Swan, A. (2007), “ Researchers’ Use of Academic Libraries and their Services” . A report commissioned by the Research Information Network and the Consortium of Research Libraries. Available at: (External Link)

Edwards, P.N., Jackson, S.J., Bowker, G.C. and Knobel, C.P. (2007), Understanding Infrastructures: Dynamics, Tensions, and Design . Report of a Workshop on “History&Theory of Infrastructure: Lessons for New Scientific Cyberinfrastructures”, National Science Foundation.

Foster, I. and Kesselman, C. (eds.) (2004). The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure , 2 nd edition, Morgan Kaufman Publishers.

Fraser, M.A. (2005), Virtual Research Environments: Overview and Activity, Ariadne , No. 44, July 2005.

Olson, G.M., Zimmerman, A. and Bos, N. (2008), Scientific Collaboration on the Interent, MIT Press.

RIN (2007), Research and the Scholarly Communications Process: Towards Strategic Goals for Public Policy . Available at http://www.rin.ac.uk/sc-statement

Voss, A., Procter, R., Budweg, S. and Prinz, W. (2007), “Collaborations in and for e‑Research: making the ‘O’ in virtual organisation work”, Proceedings of the German e-Science Conference, Baden Baden, May 2007.

Wilkins-Diehr, N. (2007), Special Issue: Science Gateways – Common Community Interfaces to Grid Resources, Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience , Vol. 19, pp.743-749.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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