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The list above is not meant to be a comprehensive list but it gives an indication of the type of functionality many VREs will contain and what sorts of interfaces they have with other systems and services. The scope of virtual research environments tends to be defined to encompass activities such as project management and research administration (cf., e.g., Borda et al. 2006, p. 3) and their relevance is therefore not limited to research active academics but extends to other professionals in the research context such as administrative or library staff. It is this breadth of vision that sets VREs apart from earlier concepts that were much more focused on solving specific problems arising from particular scientific endeavours.

A range of VREs have been funded by the UK’s Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), which has funded a series of research programmes in this area (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/vre2.aspx). The VREs funded range from exemplars and demonstrators to institutional implementations and generic tools as well as supporting projects. Further examples of e-Research and VREs can be found in the literature, for example, in Foster and Kesselman (2004), Berman, Fox and Hey (2003) and Olson, Zimmerman and Bos (2008). Examples of VREs are mentioned in other chapters of the book and you can find videos in the Resources section of the online version.

Infrastructure and communities

As the technologies mature, the focus shifts from the technical problems of distributed computation to the embedding of these technologies into organisational settings, into arrangements within research communities and into the wider societal context. It has been pointed out that infrastructures for research need to be seen as socio-technical arrangements (e.g., Edwards et al . 2007) and that the use of advanced ICTs is not just limited to “big science” endeavours in a small number of disciplines but, rather, is starting to affect research activities across the board.

Most research data today exists in digital form, either because it is created digitally (‘born digital’) or through digitisation programmes ( ibid .). The concept of ‘content as infrastructure’ emphasises the increasing importance of collections of research data as a re-usable infrastructure that builds on top of the physical research computing infrastructure and traditional infrastructures such as scientific instruments or libraries.

As the name virtual research environment implies, the aim is not to build single, monolithic systems but rather socio-technical configurations of different tools that can be assembled to suit the researchers’ needs without much effort, working within organisational, community and wider societal contexts. The concept of a VRE suggests the seamless integration of resources needed by researchers throughout the lifecycle of a research undertaking. While current VRE implementations are difficult to customise by the individual researcher to meet their specific research needs, there is a trend to provide environments that allow for the dynamic configuration and assemblage of research tools.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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