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This module is from Elementary Algebra by Denny Burzynski and Wade Ellis, Jr. The basic operations with real numbers are presented in this chapter. The concept of absolute value is discussed both geometrically and symbolically. The geometric presentation offers a visual understanding of the meaning of |x|. The symbolic presentation includes a literal explanation of how to use the definition. Negative exponents are developed, using reciprocals and the rules of exponents the student has already learned. Scientific notation is also included, using unique and real-life examples.Objectives of this module: understand the definition of subtraction, be able to subtract signed numbers.

Overview

  • Definition of Subtraction
  • Subtraction of Signed Numbers

Definition of subtraction

We know from our experience with arithmetic that the subtraction 5 2 produces 3, that is, 5 2 = 3 . Illustrating this process on the number line suggests a rule for subtracting signed numbers.

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative one to seven in increments of one. There is a curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards five. There is another curved arrow starting from five, and pointing towards three.

We begin at 0, the origin.
Since 5 is positive, we move 5 units to the right.
Then, we move 2 units to the left to get to 3. (This reminds us of addition with a negative number.)

This illustration suggests that 5 2 is the same as 5 + ( 2 ) .
This leads us directly to the definition of subtraction.

Definition of subtraction

If a and b are real numbers, a b is the same as a + ( b ) , where b is the opposite of b .

Subtraction of signed numbers

The preceding definition suggests the rule for subtracting signed numbers.

Subtraction of signed numbers

To perform the subtraction a b , add the opposite of b to a , that is, change the sign of b and add.

Sample set a

Perform the subtractions.

5 3 = 5 + ( 3 ) = 2

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative three to six in increments of one. There is a curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards five. There is another curved arrow starting from five, and pointing towards two.

4 9 = 4 + ( 9 ) = 5

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative six to six in increments of one. There is a curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards four. There is another curved arrow starting from four, and pointing towards negative five.

4 6 = 4 + ( 6 ) = 10

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative twelve to three in increments of one. There is curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards negative four. There is another curved arrow starting from negative four, and pointing towards negative ten.

3 ( 12 ) = 3 + 12 = 9

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative five to twelve in increments of one. There is a curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards negative three. There is another curved arrow starting from negative three, and pointing towards nine.

0 ( 15 ) = 0 + 15 = 15

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative two to eighteen in increments of one. There is a curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards fifteen.

The high temperature today in Lake Tahoe was 26 F . The low temperature tonight is expected to be 7 F . How many degrees is the temperature expected to drop?
We need to find the difference between 26 and 7 .

26 ( 7 ) = 26 + 7 = 33

Thus, the expected temperature drop is 33 F .

6 ( 5 ) 10 = 6 + 5 + ( 10 ) = ( 6 + 5 ) + ( 10 ) = 1 + ( 10 ) = 11

Practice set a

Perform the subtractions.

9 6

3

6 9

3

0 7

7

1 14

13

8 12

20

21 6

27

6 ( 4 )

2

8 ( 10 )

18

1 ( 12 )

13

86 ( 32 )

118

0 16

16

0 ( 16 )

16

0 ( 8 )

8

5 ( 5 )

10

24 ( ( 24 ) )

0

Exercises

For the following exercises, perform the indicated operations.

8 3

5

12 7

5 6

1

14 30

2 15

13

5 18

1 7

6

4 11

6 5

11

8 14

1 12

13

4 4

6 8

14

1 12

5 ( 3 )

2

11 ( 8 )

7 ( 12 )

5

2 ( 10 )

4 ( 15 )

11

11 ( 16 )

1 ( 6 )

5

8 ( 14 )

15 ( 10 )

5

11 ( 4 )

16 ( 8 )

8

12 ( 11 )

0 6

6

0 15

0 ( 7 )

7

0 ( 10 )

67 38

29

142 85

816 1140

324

105 421

550 ( 121 )

429

15.016 ( 4.001 )

26 + 7 52

71

15 21 ( 2 )

104 ( 216 ) ( 52 )

164

0.012 ( 0.111 ) ( 0.035 )

[ 5 + ( 6 ) ] [ 2 + ( 4 ) ]

1

[ 2 + ( 8 ) ] [ 5 + ( 7 ) ]

[ 4 + ( 11 ) ] [ 2 + ( 10 ) ]

1

[ 9 + ( 6 ) ] [ 4 + ( 12 ) ]

( 11 8 ) ( 1 6 )

8

( 5 12 ) ( 4 10 )

( 1 10 ) ( 2 15 )

4

( 0 8 ) ( 4 12 )

( 4 + 7 ) ( 2 5 )

6

( 6 + 2 ) ( 5 11 )

[ 8 + ( 5 + 3 ) ] [ 9 ( 3 5 ) ]

27

[ 4 + ( 1 + 6 ) ] [ 7 ( 6 1 ) ]

[ 2 ( 6 + 10 ) ] [ 1 ( 2 11 ) ]

12

[ 5 ( 2 5 ) ] [ 2 ( 1 4 ) ]

When a particular machine is operating properly, its meter will read 34. If a broken bearing in the machine causes the meter reading to drop by 45 units, what is the meter reading?

11

The low temperature today in Denver was 4 F and the high was 42 F . What is the temperature difference?

Exercises for review

( [link] ) Use the distributive property to expand 4 x ( 5 y + 11 ) .

20 x y + 44 x

( [link] ) Simplify 2 ( 3 x 2 y 2 ) 3 ( 2 x 4 y 3 ) 0 27 x 4 y 3 . Assume x 0 , y 0 .

( [link] ) Simplify | ( 4 2 + 2 2 3 2 ) | .

11

( [link] ) Find the sum. 8 + ( 14 ) .

( [link] ) Find the sum. 3 + ( 6 ) .

3

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
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what is Nano technology ?
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write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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what king of growth are you checking .?
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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Source:  OpenStax, Contemporary math applications. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11559/1.6
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