# 4.2 Proper fractions, improper fractions, and mixed numbers

 Page 1 / 2
This module is from Fundamentals of Mathematics by Denny Burzynski and Wade Ellis, Jr. This module discusses proper fractions, improper fractions, and mixed numbers. By the end of the module students should be able to distinguish between proper fractions, improper fractions, and mixed numbers, convert an improper fraction to a mixed number and convert a mixed number to an improper fraction.

## Section overview

• Positive Proper Fractions
• Positive Improper Fractions
• Positive Mixed Numbers
• Relating Positive Improper Fractions and Positive Mixed Numbers
• Converting an Improper Fraction to a Mixed Number
• Converting a Mixed Number to an Improper Fraction

Now that we know what positive fractions are, we consider three types of positive fractions: proper fractions, improper fractions, and mixed numbers.

## Positive proper fraction

Fractions in which the whole number in the numerator is strictly less than the whole number in the denominator are called positive proper fractions . On the number line, proper fractions are located in the interval from 0 to 1. Positive proper fractions are always less than one. The closed circle at 0 indicates that 0 is included, while the open circle at 1 indicates that 1 is not included.

Some examples of positive proper fractions are

 $\frac{1}{2}$ , $\frac{3}{5}$ , $\frac{\text{20}}{\text{27}}$ , and $\frac{\text{106}}{\text{255}}$

Note that $\text{1}<\text{2}$ , $\text{3}<\text{5}$ , $\text{20}<\text{27}$ , and $\text{106}<\text{225}$ .

## Positive improper fractions

Fractions in which the whole number in the numerator is greater than or equal to the whole number in the denominator are called positive improper fractions . On the number line, improper fractions lie to the right of (and including) 1. Positive improper fractions are always greater than or equal to 1. Some examples of positive improper fractions are

$\frac{3}{2}$ , $\frac{8}{5}$ , $\frac{4}{4}$ , and $\frac{\text{105}}{\text{16}}$

Note that $3\ge 2$ , $8\ge 5$ , $4\ge 4$ , and $\text{105}\ge \text{16}$ .

## Positive mixed numbers

A number of the form

$\text{nonzero whole number}+\text{proper fraction}$

is called a positive mixed number . For example, $2\frac{3}{5}$ is a mixed number. On the number line, mixed numbers are located in the interval to the right of (and includ­ing) 1. Mixed numbers are always greater than or equal to 1. ## Relating positive improper fractions and positive mixed numbers

A relationship between improper fractions and mixed numbers is suggested by two facts. The first is that improper fractions and mixed numbers are located in the same interval on the number line. The second fact, that mixed numbers are the sum of a natural number and a fraction, can be seen by making the following observa­tions.

Divide a whole quantity into 3 equal parts. Now, consider the following examples by observing the respective shaded areas. In the shaded region, there are 2 one thirds, or $\frac{2}{3}$ .

$2\left(\frac{1}{3}\right)=\frac{2}{3}$ There are 3 one thirds, or $\frac{3}{3}$ , or 1.

$3\left(\frac{1}{3}\right)=\frac{3}{3}\phantom{\rule{8px}{0ex}}\text{or}\phantom{\rule{8px}{0ex}}1$

Thus,

$\frac{3}{3}=1$

Improper fraction = whole number.  There are 4 one thirds, or $\frac{4}{3}$ , or 1 and $\frac{1}{3}$ .

$4\left(\frac{1}{3}\right)=\frac{4}{3}$ or $1\phantom{\rule{8px}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{8px}{0ex}}\frac{1}{3}$

The terms 1 and $\frac{1}{3}$ can be represented as $1+\frac{1}{3}$ or $1\frac{1}{3}$

Thus,

$\frac{4}{3}=1\frac{1}{3}$ .

Improper fraction = mixed number.  There are 5 one thirds, or $\frac{5}{3}$ , or 1 and $\frac{2}{3}$ .

$5\left(\frac{1}{3}\right)=\frac{5}{3}\phantom{\rule{8px}{0ex}}\text{or}\phantom{\rule{8px}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{8px}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{8px}{0ex}}\frac{2}{3}$

#### Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
7hours 36 min - 4hours 50 min By Danielrosenberger By    By Eric Crawford By Mistry Bhavesh By  By Anindyo Mukhopadhyay