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"Robust" is a technical word that implies insensitivity to modeling assumptions. As we have seen, some algorithms arerobust while others are not. The intent of robust signal processing is to derive algorithms that are explicitly insensitive to the underlying signal and/or noise models. The way in which modelingincertainties are described is typified by the approach we shall use in the following discussion of robust model evaluation.

We assume that two nominal models of the generation of the statistically independent observations areknown; the "actual" conditional probability density that describes the data under the assumptions of each model is notknown exactly, but is "close" to the nominal. Letting p be the actual probability density for each observation and p o the nominal, we say that ( Huber; 1981 ) p x 1 p o x p d x where p d is the unknown disturbance density and is the uncertainty variable ( 0 1 ). The uncertainty variable specifies how accurate the nominal model is through to be: the smaller , the smaller the contribution of the disturbance. It is assumed that some valuefor can be rationally assigned. The disturbance density is entirely unknown and isassumed to be any value probability density function. The expression given above is normalized so that p has unit density ranging about it. An example of densities described this way are shown in .

The nominal density, a Gaussian, is shown as a dashed line along with example densities derived from it having anuncertainty of 10% ( 0.1 ). The left plot illustrates a symmetric contamination and the right an asymmetric one.

The robust model evaluation problem is formally stated as 0 : p r 0 r l 0 L 1 1 p o r l 0 r l p d r l 0 r l 1 : p r 1 r l 0 L 1 1 p o r l 1 r l p d r l 1 r l The nominal densities under each model correspond to the conditional densities that we have been using until now. Thedisturbance densities are intended to model imprecision of both descriptions; hence, they are assumed to be different in thecontext of each model. Note that the measure of imprecision is assumed to be the same under either model.

To solve this problem, we take what is known as a minimax approach : find the worst-case combinations of a priori densities (max), then minimize the consequences of this situation (mini)according to some criterion. In this way, bad situations are handles as well as can be expected while the more tolerable onesare (hopefully) processed well also. The "mini" phase of the minimax solution corresponds to the likelihood ratio for manycriteria. Thus, the "max" phase amounts to finding the worst-case probability distributions for the likelihood ratiotest as described in the previous section: find the disturbance densities that can result in a constant value for the ratio overlarge domains of functions. When the two nominal distributions scaled by 1 can be brought together so that they are equal for some disturbance, then the likelihood ratio will be constant inthat domain. Of most interest here is the case where the models differ only in the value of the mean, as shown in . "Bringing the distributions together" means, in this case, scaling the distribution for 0 by 1 while adding the constant to the scaled distribution for 1 . One can shown in general that if the ratio of the nominal densities is monotonic, this procedure finds theworst-case distribution ( Huber; 1965 ). The distributions overlap for small and for large values of the data with no overlap in a central region. As weshall see, the size of this central region depends greatly on the choice of . The tails of the worst-case distributions under each model are equal; conceptually, we consider that theworst-case densities have exponential tails in the model evaluation problem.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Statistical signal processing. OpenStax CNX. Dec 05, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11382/1.1
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