4.12 Differential phase shift keying

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The phase lock loop provides estimates of the phase of the incoming modulated signal. A phase ambiguity of exactly $\pi$ is a common occurance in many phase lock loop (PLL) implementations.

Therefore it is possible that, $\stackrel{^}{\theta }=\theta +\pi$ without the knowledge of the receiver. Even if there is no noise, if $b=1$ then $\stackrel{^}{b}=0$ and if $b=0$ then $\stackrel{^}{b}=1$ .

In the presence of noise, an incorrect decision due to noise may results in a correct final desicion (in binary case, when thereis $\pi$ phase ambiguity with the probability:

$\overline{{P}_{e}}=1-Q(\sqrt{\frac{2{E}_{s}}{{N}_{0}}})$

Consider a stream of bits ${a}_{n}\in \{0, 1\}$ and BPSK modulated signal

$\sum_{n} -1^{{a}_{n}}A{P}_{T}(t-nT)\cos (2\pi {f}_{c}t+\theta )$

In differential PSK, the transmitted bits are first encoded ${b}_{n}={a}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}$ with initial symbol ( e.g. ${b}_{0}$ ) chosen without loss of generality to be either 0 or 1.

Transmitted DPSK signals

$\sum_{n} -1^{{b}_{n}}A{P}_{T}(t-nT)\cos (2\pi {f}_{c}t+\theta )$

The decoder can be constructed as

${b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n}={b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{a}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}=0\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{a}_{n}={a}_{n}$

If two consecutive bits are detected correctly, if ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}={b}_{n}$ and ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n-1}$ then

${\stackrel{^}{a}}_{n}={\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}={a}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}={a}_{n}$
if ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1$ and ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1$ . That is, two consecutive bits are detected incorrectly. Then,
${\stackrel{^}{a}}_{n}={\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}0={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}={a}_{n}$
If ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1$ and ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n-1}$ , that is, one of two consecutive bits is detected in error. In this case there will be an error and the probabilityof that error for DPSK is
${\overline{P}}_{e}=({\stackrel{^}{a}}_{n}\neq {a}_{n})=({\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}={b}_{n}, {\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}\neq {b}_{n-1})+({\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}\neq {b}_{n}, {\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n-1})=2Q(\sqrt{\frac{2{E}_{s}}{{N}_{0}}})$
1 Q 2 E s N 0
2 Q 2 E s N 0
This approximation holds if $Q$ is small.

are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
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Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
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Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
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Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
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if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
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Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
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