# 4.12 Differential phase shift keying

 Page 1 / 1

The phase lock loop provides estimates of the phase of the incoming modulated signal. A phase ambiguity of exactly $\pi$ is a common occurance in many phase lock loop (PLL) implementations.

Therefore it is possible that, $\stackrel{^}{\theta }=\theta +\pi$ without the knowledge of the receiver. Even if there is no noise, if $b=1$ then $\stackrel{^}{b}=0$ and if $b=0$ then $\stackrel{^}{b}=1$ .

In the presence of noise, an incorrect decision due to noise may results in a correct final desicion (in binary case, when thereis $\pi$ phase ambiguity with the probability:

$\overline{{P}_{e}}=1-Q(\sqrt{\frac{2{E}_{s}}{{N}_{0}}})$

Consider a stream of bits ${a}_{n}\in \{0, 1\}$ and BPSK modulated signal

$\sum_{n} -1^{{a}_{n}}A{P}_{T}(t-nT)\cos (2\pi {f}_{c}t+\theta )$

In differential PSK, the transmitted bits are first encoded ${b}_{n}={a}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}$ with initial symbol ( e.g. ${b}_{0}$ ) chosen without loss of generality to be either 0 or 1.

Transmitted DPSK signals

$\sum_{n} -1^{{b}_{n}}A{P}_{T}(t-nT)\cos (2\pi {f}_{c}t+\theta )$

The decoder can be constructed as

${b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n}={b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{a}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}=0\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{a}_{n}={a}_{n}$

If two consecutive bits are detected correctly, if ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}={b}_{n}$ and ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n-1}$ then

${\stackrel{^}{a}}_{n}={\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}={a}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}={a}_{n}$
if ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1$ and ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1$ . That is, two consecutive bits are detected incorrectly. Then,
${\stackrel{^}{a}}_{n}={\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}0={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}{b}_{n-1}={a}_{n}$
If ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}={b}_{n}\mathop{\mathrm{xor}}1$ and ${\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n-1}$ , that is, one of two consecutive bits is detected in error. In this case there will be an error and the probabilityof that error for DPSK is
${\overline{P}}_{e}=({\stackrel{^}{a}}_{n}\neq {a}_{n})=({\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}={b}_{n}, {\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}\neq {b}_{n-1})+({\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n}\neq {b}_{n}, {\stackrel{^}{b}}_{n-1}={b}_{n-1})=2Q(\sqrt{\frac{2{E}_{s}}{{N}_{0}}})$
1 Q 2 E s N 0
2 Q 2 E s N 0
This approximation holds if $Q$ is small.

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers! By Donyea Sweets By Brooke Delaney By Madison Christian By Jonathan Long By OpenStax By OpenStax By OpenStax By Madison Christian By Brooke Delaney By OpenStax