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Here N C = effective density of states at E C (the lower edge of Conduction Band) ~10 19 /cc for all the three semiconductors namely Ge,Si and GaAs.

Here N V = effective density of states at E V (the upper edge of Valence Band) ~10 19 /cc for all the three semiconductors namely Ge,Si and GaAs.

E g = Band-Gap(eV), k = Boltzmann Constant, T = Absolute Temperature in Kelvin.

Table gives the intrinsic concentration of electrons and holes in Ge,Si and GaAs at Room Temperature (300K).

Table Intrinsic Concentration of electrons and holes in Ge,Si and GaAs at Temperature 300K.

Semiconductor Band-Gap Temperature Effective Density of States n i = p i
Ge 0.67eV 300K ~10 19 /cc 2.4×10 13 /cc
Si 1.12eV 300K ~10 19 /cc 4×10 9 /cc
GaAs 1.4eV 300K N C ~5×10 17 /cc, N V ~7×10 18 /cc 3.3×10 6 /cc

Figure 2.2.24 in the previous section illustrates how the EHP are thermally generated and why they are always equal.

Equation clearly shows that intrinsic concentration is very temperature sensitive.

Table. Concentration of Si from 300K to 360K

Temperature 300K 310K 320K 330K 340K 350K 360K
Intrinsic Conc(per cc) 4×10 9 8×10 9 1.5×10 10 2.8×10 10 5×10 10 9×10 10 1.45×10 11

From Table it is evident that for an increment of 60K above Room Temperature, intrinsic concentration has increased by two-orders of magnitude i.e. nearly 100 times. Because of this undesirable feature of intrinsic concentration, Si suffers from a very serious drawback namely: the reverse leakage current in a reverse biased diode doubles for every 10K rise in temperature.

In Figure 2.2.26, the exponential rise in intrinsic concentration with temperature is plotted.

2.2.5. Extrinsic Semi-conductor, space-charge neutrality and compensation .

Electronic Grade Semiconductor with no doping is called Intrinsic Semiconductor and that with doping is called Extrinsic Semiconductor.

Semiconductor is Group IV element or compound semi-conductor is Group (III+V) Compound.

For Group IV element, Group III(namely B, Al) is acceptor or P-Type dopent and Group V(P, As) is donor or N-Type dopent.

For Group (III+V)Compound semiconductor, Group II is acceptor or P-Type dopent and Group VI is donor or N-Type dopent.

In Figure 2.2.27, the consequence of introducing a donor atom or the consequence of introducing an acceptor atom in a Silicon Crystalline Lattice is shown.

In case of Donor doped Silicon where doping density is N D donor atoms/cc , the octave condition is completed by 4 valence electrons of donor atom hence 5 th valence electron beomes the odd-man out and hence is very loosely held by the host donor atom. At Room Temperature, the 5 th valence electron is broken loose from the donor and becomes a wanderer in Si-lattice. In effect Donor atom gets (+)ve ly ionized and donates its negatively charged 5 th valence electron to the Si-lattice.Hence overall space-charge neutrality is maintained. Plus there are thermally generated EHP also.Overall thermal equilibrium is achieved and we have thermal equilibrium concentration value(n n -bar) of conducting electron and thermal equilibrium value (p n -bar) of holes. Here conducting electrons are many orders of magnitude larger than holes hence electrons are referred to as majority carriers and holes are referred to as minority carriers.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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