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SSPD_Chapter 2.2.1 and Chapter 2.2.2 give the Solid State Equivalent of Vacuum Devices and the Crystalline Structure of Silicon.

2.2.1.solid state equivalent of all the vacuum tube devices.

Vacuum Tube Devices Solid State Equivalent
Photo-multiplier Tube Photo-diode/Op/.Amp.
Ruby and Gas LASER PN Junction Diode LASER
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Flat Panel Display- LCD (Liquid Crystal Devices) and LED(Light-emitting Devices) version
T.V. Camera. Charge-Couple Device Camera.
Thyratron Thyristor or SCR(Silicon Contol Rectifier)
Vacuum Tube Triode and Pentode Bipolar Junction Transistor(BJT), MOSFET(Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor),JFET(Junction-FET)

2.2.2. crystalline structure of silicon

Silicon is a Group IV element with 4 electrons in its outermost orbit. Each Silicon atom is co-valently bond to 4 neighbouring Si atoms. In the process the octave is completed for all the Si stoms except those on the surface of the specimen. The surface has dangling bonds which need to be passivated. The crystalline structure of Silicon is called Diamond Lattice Structure.

Silicon has a lattice constant of ‘a’=5.43A° at 300K. It is two interpenetrating FCC(Face-Center-Cube) lattice with one sub-lattice displaced with respect to the other by quarter of the distance along the cross diagonal of the cube.

The whole diamond lattice cube is divided into 8 sub-cubes.Two sub-cubes in the upper half and two sub-cubes in the lower half contain the tetrahedral structure. The four sub-cubes are so arranged that the top view gives seamless continuity of co-valent sharing of the electrons with four neighbouring atoms as shown in Figure 2.2.4.

Tetrahedral structure shown in Figure 2.2.3. is repeadted throughout the lattice space as a consequence there are:

4 body atoms = 4 × 1 = 4 atoms

6 face atoms = 6 × ½ = 3 atoms.

8 corner atoms = 8 ×1/8 = 1 atoms

Hence there are 4+3+1= 8 atoms per unit cell.

Therefore atom number density = 8 / a 3 =8/(5.43A°) 3 = 5×10 22 atoms/cc.

Generally all crystalline solid material have a packing density of this order. This is the reason whuy in Copper each atom being univalent contributes 1 electron. Hence conducting electron concentration ‘n’ ~ 10 22 electrons/cc .

Weight Density = atom density×weight per atom.

Weight per atom = Weight of 1 gram-mole/Avogadro Number=A/A vog

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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