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SSPD_Chapter 2.2.1 and Chapter 2.2.2 give the Solid State Equivalent of Vacuum Devices and the Crystalline Structure of Silicon.

2.2.1.solid state equivalent of all the vacuum tube devices.

Vacuum Tube Devices Solid State Equivalent
Photo-multiplier Tube Photo-diode/Op/.Amp.
Ruby and Gas LASER PN Junction Diode LASER
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Flat Panel Display- LCD (Liquid Crystal Devices) and LED(Light-emitting Devices) version
T.V. Camera. Charge-Couple Device Camera.
Thyratron Thyristor or SCR(Silicon Contol Rectifier)
Vacuum Tube Triode and Pentode Bipolar Junction Transistor(BJT), MOSFET(Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor),JFET(Junction-FET)

2.2.2. crystalline structure of silicon

Silicon is a Group IV element with 4 electrons in its outermost orbit. Each Silicon atom is co-valently bond to 4 neighbouring Si atoms. In the process the octave is completed for all the Si stoms except those on the surface of the specimen. The surface has dangling bonds which need to be passivated. The crystalline structure of Silicon is called Diamond Lattice Structure.

Silicon has a lattice constant of ‘a’=5.43A° at 300K. It is two interpenetrating FCC(Face-Center-Cube) lattice with one sub-lattice displaced with respect to the other by quarter of the distance along the cross diagonal of the cube.

The whole diamond lattice cube is divided into 8 sub-cubes.Two sub-cubes in the upper half and two sub-cubes in the lower half contain the tetrahedral structure. The four sub-cubes are so arranged that the top view gives seamless continuity of co-valent sharing of the electrons with four neighbouring atoms as shown in Figure 2.2.4.

Tetrahedral structure shown in Figure 2.2.3. is repeadted throughout the lattice space as a consequence there are:

4 body atoms = 4 × 1 = 4 atoms

6 face atoms = 6 × ½ = 3 atoms.

8 corner atoms = 8 ×1/8 = 1 atoms

Hence there are 4+3+1= 8 atoms per unit cell.

Therefore atom number density = 8 / a 3 =8/(5.43A°) 3 = 5×10 22 atoms/cc.

Generally all crystalline solid material have a packing density of this order. This is the reason whuy in Copper each atom being univalent contributes 1 electron. Hence conducting electron concentration ‘n’ ~ 10 22 electrons/cc .

Weight Density = atom density×weight per atom.

Weight per atom = Weight of 1 gram-mole/Avogadro Number=A/A vog

Questions & Answers

what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
hi
Adu
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
hi vedant can u help me with some assignments
Solomon
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
hi
Ayuba
Hello
opoku
hi
Ali
greetings from Iran
Ali
salut. from Algeria
Bach
hi
Nharnhar
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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