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The turned-in knees of humans and of Australopithecus allow the feet to be aligned to the front.

This means that the ball of the foot and the big toe, in particular, plays an important role in walking.

Source C

Pelvic girdles and thighbones. The similarity of the human thighbone and that of Australopithecus is clearly identifiable. The vertical black line G indicates the axis along which the weight is transferred from the hip to the knee. A = os ileum (hipbone), B = socket for the thighbone, C = os pubis (pubic bone), D = os ischium, E = os sacrum, F = os femur (thighbone).

Source D

With Australopithecus the knee joints were turned inwards, as with modern human beings and their footprints formed a similar pattern to ours. The chimpanzee has a waddling gait when it walks on hind legs only.

Twelve years later, in 1936, Dr. Robert Boom discovered an adult skull at Sterkfontein (near Krugersdorp). He initially thought that he had found a female of a new species and named it Plesianthropus transvaalensis (Mrs. Ples). But further investigation revealed Mrs. Ples to be virtually identical to the Taung child.

Activity 2:

To understand time by showing that some communities changed because of particular circumstances, while other communities were unaffected

[lo 2.1]

a) Study the following and then answer the questions that are provided. First make a sketch illustrating similar circumstances at your home.

  • Is it difficult to get hold of food ? Is food shared among the family members?
  • What kind of clothing is worn?
  • What is revealed about family life? Do adults care for their children?
  • What equipment and weapons are used? Has technology brought about any changes?
  • Is it possible to be safe while sleeping at night ?
  • Do men and women have different tasks ?
  • Do these people remain in one place for a long time?

b) Develop a comic strip or an art song to give expression to the above information.


Assessment standards(ASe)
LEARNING OUTCOME 1: HISTORICAL ENQUIRY- The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present
1.1 Access the sources
1.2 Use the sources
1.3 Communicate information from sources (reporting))
LEARNING OUTCOME 2: HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding
2.1 Understand chronology and time
2.2 Supply reasons why an historical event took place (causes, effects)
2.3 Differentiate between different periods (similarities, differences)
LEARNING OUTCOME 3: INTERPRETING HISTORY – The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history
3.1 Be aware of more than one view of the past
3.2 Distinguish between fact and opinion
3.3 Reconstruct the past


Activity 1

There are clear differences between apes and human beings. Man is the only primate to walk upright. The shape of the pelvis, the position of the femur, and the way in which the feet are put down, are very specific. A comparison between the build of the rest of the body and the brain indicates that the Australopithecus is related closer to man. There was a development pattern from Australopithecus through Homo habilis and Homo erectus to the modern day Homo sapiens .

Activity 2

Suppose this illustration is a representation of the Stone Age :

They lived in caves where they slept and kept food, and used tools, weapons and fire. Gathering food was the main activity. The men hunted and caught fish. The women and children gathered berries, wild fruit and root plants. They also hoarded food for the winter months and also prepared food. Tools were made of bone, stone and wood and gradually improved because they also manufactured arrows, axes and daggers. They could manufacture objects, e.g. “needles” that were used to sew clothing from wool and flax. Early man never stayed long in one place.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11023/1.1
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