<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
(Blank Abstract)

Data symbols are "1" or "0" and data rate is 1 T Hertz.

Pulse amplitude modulation (pam)

Pulse position modulation

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Example

Data symbols are "1" or "0" and the data rate is 2 T Hertz.

This strategy is an alternative to PAM with half the period, T 2 .

Relevant measures are energy of modulated signals

E m m 1 2 M t 0 T s m t 2
and how different they are in terms of inner products.
s m s n t 0 T s m t s n t
for m 1 2 M and n 1 2 M .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!
antipodal
Signals s 1 t and s 2 t are antipodal if t t 0 T s 2 t s 1 t
orthogonal
Signals s 1 t , s 2 t ,…, s M t are orthogonal if s m s n 0 for m n .
biorthogonal
Signals s 1 t , s 2 t ,…, s M t are biorthogonal if s 1 t ,…, s M 2 t are orthogonal and s m t s M 2 + m t for some m 1 2 M 2 .

It is quite intuitive to expect that the smaller (the more negative) the inner products, s m s n for all m n , the better the signal set.

Simplex signals
Let s 1 t s 2 t s M t be a set of orthogonal signals with equal energy. The signals s 1 ˜ t ,…, s M ˜ t are simplex signals if
s m ˜ t s m t 1 M k 1 M s k t

If the energy of orthogonal signals is denoted by

m m 1 2 ... M E s t 0 T s m t 2
then the energy of simplex signals
E s ˜ 1 1 M E s
and
m n s m ˜ s n ˜ -1 M 1 E s ˜

It is conjectured that among all possible M -ary signals with equal energy, the simplex signal set results in the smallest probability of error when used totransmit information through an additive white Gaussian noise channel.

The geometric representation of signals can provide a compact description of signals and can simplify performance analysis of communication systems usingthe signals.

Once signals have been modulated, the receiver must detect and demodulate the signals despite interference and noise and decide which of the set ofpossible transmitted signals was sent.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Digital communication systems. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10134/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Digital communication systems' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask