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Energy changes in chemical reactions

All reactions involve some change in energy. During a physical change in matter, such as the evaporation of liquid water to water vapour, the energy of the water molecules increases. However, the change in energy is much smaller than in chemical reactions.

When a chemical reaction occurs, some bonds will break , while new bonds may form . Energy changes in chemical reactions result from the breaking and forming of bonds. For bonds to break , energy must be absorbed . When new bonds form , energy will be released because the new product has a lower energy than the `in between' stage of the reaction when the bonds in the reactants have just been broken.

In some reactions, the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants is less than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall reaction, energy is released . This type of reaction is known as an exothermic reaction. In other reactions, the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants is more than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall reaction, energy must be absorbed from the surroundings. This type of reaction is known as an endothermic reaction. Most decomposition reactions are endothermic and heating is needed for the reaction to occur. Most synthesis reactions are exothermic, meaning that energy is given off in the form of heat or light.

More simply, we can describe the energy changes that take place during a chemical reaction as:

Total energy absorbed to break bonds - Total energy released when new bonds form

So, for example, in the reaction...

2Mg + O 2 2MgO

Energy is needed to break the O-O bonds in the oxygen molecule so that new Mg-O bonds can be formed, and energy is released when the product (MgO) forms.

Despite all the energy changes that seem to take place during reactions, it is important to remember that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy that enters a system will have come from the surrounding environment and energy that leaves a system will again become part of that environment. This is known as the conservation of energy principle.

Conservation of energy principle

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.

Chemical reactions may produce some very visible and often violent changes. An explosion, for example, is a sudden increase in volume and release of energy when high temperatures are generated and gases are released. For example, NH 4 NO 3 can be heated to generate nitrous oxide. Under these conditions, it is highly sensitive and can detonate easily in an explosive exothermic reaction.

Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions

The total mass of all the substances taking part in a chemical reaction is conserved during a chemical reaction. This is known as the law of conservation of mass . The total number of atoms of each element also remains the same during a reaction, although these may be arranged differently in the products.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Aug 29, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11245/1.3
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