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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 7

Kaartwerk

Module 11

Die lees, ontleding en vertolking van vertikale lugfoto’s en ortofotokaarte

  • Voordat van julle verwag kan word om vertikale lugfoto’s en ortofotokaarte verder te interpreteer, het julle heelwat meer inligting hieroor nodig.

‘n Vertikale lugfoto van ‘n gebied word vanuit ‘n vliegtuig reg van bo-af geneem.

Voordele

  • Die meeste voorwerpe is sigbaar;
  • Die uitleg van paaie en spoorlyne is duidelik sigbaar;
  • Hoë bome, berge en geboue word maklik herken aan die skaduwees wat hulle gooi.

Nadele

  • Die beeld wat jy sien, is van bo-af en dus ongewoon vir die mens. Dis ‘n ongewone gesigshoek wat baie oefening, kennis en ondervinding vereis om te kan lees.
  • Dit is in swart en wit en kan verwarrend wees.
  • Vertikale lugfoto’s word as basis gebruik wanneer topografiese kaarte geteken word. Inligting van die lugfoto word deur kartograwe (mense wat opgelei is om akkurate kaarte te teken) oorgedra op papier deur gebruik te maak van die internasionale simboolsleutel en kleure waarvan julle reeds geleer het.
  • Vandag is ortofotokaarte baie gewild vir kaartbestudering. Die eienskappe van die 1:50 000 topografiese kaart en dié van die vertikale lugfoto word gekombineer om ‘n ortofotokaart te teken. ‘n Ortofotokaart is dus ‘n vertikale lugfoto op ‘n laer vlak van 1:10 000, waarop kontoerlyne ingeteken is .
  • Kontoer-tussenruimtes van 5 meter word gebruik sodat baie fyn detail sigbaar is. Selfs sekere plekname, spoorlyne, paaie, ens., word op die foto gedruk. ‘n Mens kan dus die voorwerpe makliker identifiseer. Kaarte en foto’s het dus elkeen hulle besondere kenmerke, voordele en nadele. ‘n Mens kan eintlik net ‘n duidelike voorstelling van ‘n landskap vorm wanneer jy ‘n topografiese kaart en ‘n foto saam bestudeer.
  • ‘n Topografiese kaart is ‘n voorstelling van die aardoppervlakte volgens skaal en aan die hand van ‘n simboolsleutel. Dit gee ‘n duidelike, vereenvoudigde beeld waarop slegs bepaalde kenmerke getoon word. ‘n Topografiese kaart is dus nie altyd heeltemal akkuraat nie en kan ook verouderd wees.
  • ‘n Vertikale lugfoto en ortofotokaart is wonderlike hulpmiddels as dit saam met ‘n topografiese kaart gebruik word. Alleenlik dan kan noukeurige kaart- en fotolesings gedoen word.

1. Hoe kyk ‘n mens na ‘n vertikale lugfoto of ortofotokaart?

  • Grootte van voorwerpe

As die skaal van die lugfoto bereken is, kan die lengte van voorwerpe bepaal word en afstand en oppervlaktes kan bereken word. ‘n Roostervormige dorpsnedersetting se oppervlakte kan byvoorbeeld so bepaal word.

  • Vorme van voorwerpe
  • Mensgemaakte verskynsels is oor die algemeen reëlmatig. Dink hier maar aan geboue, omgeploegde landerye, paaie, spoorlyne en damwalle. Natuurlike voorwerpe en verskynsels is weer onreëlmatig, soos berge, riviere, woude en grasvelde.
  • Paaie is breë, liggrys lyne op ‘n foto. Nasionale paaie is gewoonlik reguit en sonder skerp draaie. Sekondêre paaie vertoon smaller en vertoon skerp draaie. Spoorlyne vertoon as smal, donkerder grys lyne met egalige draaie. Paaie sluit dikwels reghoekig bymekaar aan, terwyl spoorlyne geleidelik ineen loop.
  • Riviere is breë, donkergrys lyne, met kurwes en draaie soos die rivier deur ‘n area kronkel en sytakke by die hoofstroom aansluit. Die V-vorm van ‘n sytak-aansluiting wys ALTYD stroom-af en so kan die vloeirigting bepaal word.
  • Die tint of skakering van voorwerpe

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11020/1.1
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