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Social sciences


Grade 9

Current affairs

Module 15

Children and aids in africa

Activity 1:

Children in africa

[lo 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.2, 2.4, 3.2, 3.3]

The learner will be able to apply research skills, demonstrate knowledge and understanding of history by making use of correspondences and differences: CHILDREN IN AFRICA

  • Study the sources provided below and answer the questions that follow.


Comments on Aids

If action is not taken immediately, more people will have died on account of Aids by 2010 than in all the wars of the twentieth century

Translated from information published in: Rapport , 16 July 2000


Aids in Africa

According to a report published in London by the organisation, Christian Aid, approximately 12 million children in Africa have been orphaned on account of Aids.

Translated from: Die Burger , NuusOorsig, 19 May 2001


Aids orphans in Southern Africa

Conservative estimates have in the meantime indicated that there will be 600 000 so-called Aids orphans in Zimbabwe within six years. Homes for orphans have already reached maximum accommodation levels.

Translated from: Die Burger, 19 November 1993.


Extract from the South African Constitution



Everyone has inherent dignity and the right to have their dignity respected and protected.


May not be detained, except as a measure of last resort, in which case, in addition to the rights a child enjoys under sections 12 and 35, the child may be detained only for the shortest appropriate period of time, and [such a child] has the right to be –

Kept separately from detained persons over the age of 18 years; and

Treated in a manner, and kept in conditions that take account of the child's age;

[Have the right] to have a legal practitioner assigned to the child by the state and at state expense…;

[Have the right] not to be used directly in armed conflict; and to be protected in times of armed conflict;

[Have the right]

- to family care or parental care, or

- to appropriate alternative care when removed from the family environment;

- to be allowed contact with parents,

- a chosen religious counsellor and

- a chosen medical practitioner.


Children used as soldiers in Sierra Leone

During the past decade the warring parties in Sierra Leone have all made use of children as young as 12 years of age and older to wage war. Thousands of children have also been kidnapped by the Revolutionary United Front and kept in the bush to be used as soldiers and enslaved workers. Some children have lived in the bush for up to six years and have also taken part in horrifying war crimes like the amputation of the limbs of prisoners, etc.

A Rafaello Ciriello: Post Cards from Hell (www.ciriello.com)


CHILDREN IN SIERRA LEONE: Young, Armed and Dangerous

Freetown - Since the Military Junta took over the reigns of office in May, hundreds of child soldiers have fled from the camps where they were held. These children are back on the streets, armed with AK 47 rifles and grenade launchers. It is a common sight again to see children patrolling the streets in cities like Freetown. This evokes the fear that the children could again be drawn into the conflict.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11063/1.1
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