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In the United States early the word "slave" became synonymous with "black", "African" or "nigger" and since there were many Indian slaves, they were of ten subject to the same names and, in fact, considered the same. Actually genetically the southern Negro was a product of Africans, whites and Indians. After slave importation from Africa was outlawed and Indian slave raids in the South had become relatively insignificant, the percentage of males among those races of the south changed. The male Africans decreased in percentage while the male Indians increased. The famed Seminole Chief Osceola's spouse, or at least one of them, in all probability was a Negro and his father in all likelihood was white. A physical anthropologist who has examined Osceloa's bones has speculated that he had African forebears as well. Many modern Negroes are doubtless correct in claiming direct descent from that great Seminole warrior. As the Cherokees became increasingly cultured, they adopted white attitudes toward Negroes, but it was different among the Seminoles. Both slave and free Africans lived among them and indeed were a part of the Seminoles and their presence became more conspicuous during the 19th century Seminole wars. In 1818 General Andrew Jackson stormed into Spanish Florida and his major objective was Bowlegs Town, a sizable Negro settlement on the Suwannee River. (Ref. 267 )

As Monroe's Secretary of State, in December, 1823, John Quincy Adams insisted that the president issue what became known as the Monroe Doctrine. As a warning to European pawers who might have designs on any of the new central and south American governments and to Russia, who was claiming new territory on the Canadian coast, the doctrine may be summarized as follows:

  • The American continent was not to be considered as subject for future colonization by European powers
  • The U.S. would not interfere with any existing European colonies

John quincy adams (1825-29) a minority president

Adams was a great patriot and wanted to use federal revenue to increase the navy, build national roads and canals, send out scientific expeditions and establish institutions of learning and research, but most of these things were not to materialize for some years to come.

Andrew jackson (old hickory) (1829-37) 6th president and martin van buren (1837-41) 7th president

This was the era of the great political figures - Adams, Clay, Webster, Van Buren and Calhoun, and it marked the beginning of the modern Democratic political party. The Adams - Jackson political campaign of 1828 was the most degrading experience of an election that the United States had experienced. Jackson was ill-educated, intolerant and rough, yet professing the principles of the Declaration of Independence and devoted to the union. Jacksonian democracy was the upsurge of a new generation of recently enfranchised voters against a somewhat ossified Jefferson Republican party. (Ref. 151 ) Jackson Democrats believed in equality only for white men and they introduced the spoils system into federal government, catered to mediocrity and diluted politics with the incompetent and the corrupt. The jackass as a symbol of the Democratic party was first used by the opposing Whigs as a satire on the supposed ignorance of "Old Hickory". Two vital issues of that time were:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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