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James madison administration(1809-1815) 4th president

In 1808 Congress had passed a law against the importation of slaves, but it was not strictly enforced because Eli Whitney's cotton gin initially made slave labor in the fields seem even more needed. In addition the invention of the gin introduced the principle of mass production to America, a feature which led to the Colt revolver, the sewing machine and the flour mill, revolutionizing the status of human labor, particularly in the western world and still more especially in the northern states. The north welcomed the Industrial Revolution while the south rejected it. After Jean Etienne Bore had demonstrated how to make granulated sugar from cane, a great sugar empire began to stretch along the Gulf. With the development of a steamboat which could go upstream against the Mississippi current, the sugar was sent to St. Louis, Louisville and Cincinnati for refining. (Ref. 39 )

Although a great statesman, Madison was a poor politician and as a result of his ineptitude and Napoleon's maneuverings, difficulties with England increased. Both French and English navies were seizing and even scuttling American vessels. In 1811 Madison forbade all intercourse with England and as Napoleon had closed all Europe to Britain at the same time, it made for a very bad winter in England. By 1812 the United States and England were at war.

In the meantime, as the Spanish Empire appeared to be breaking up, the inhabitants of "West Florida" elected for the United States and were soon incorporated as the Territory of Orleans (later part of the state of Louisiana. We must also discuss the Indian situation in the Ohio and Indiana regions at this time. By 1800 many Indians were ready to try the white man's ways. Late in 1801 a delegation of chiefs from the Potawatomis, Miamis, Delawares, Shawnees, Kickapoos and Kaskaskias visited the east and two of the chief s asked for government assistance. As a result, during that first decade of the century the federal government and various religious organizations sent funds, farming implements and advisors to those tribes. Yet most of the programs were mismanaged and unscrupulous agents even sold the farm implements to white settlers. But primarily the Indians themselves could not become adjusted to the new ways. The Shawnees, early known as the "Southerners" by other Algonquian-speaking peoples shared the same problems. Branches of this tribe were scattered across the south, the Gulf Coast, the Delaware Valley, Georgia and South Carolina at various periods. In this century many were settled in Ohio and Indiana when the white citizens there declared an "open season" on Shawnee property. That, along with Shawnee excessive drinking, economic difficulties and various injustices led to deterioration of relationships. Some of these Shawnees, including a young prince, Tecumseh, had fought against the Americans under "Mad Anthony" Wayne at the end of the last century. Now Tecumseh's brother Tenskwatawa, a Shawnee holy man, sought to save his people with a new mystic religion. Claiming that he had been appointed by the Great Spirit he established Prophetstown near where the Tippecanoe joins the Wabash River, denounced alcohol and polygamy and set up certain rituals. The future president William Henry Harrison kept pushing his land acquisitions and further antagonizing various tribes, all of which soon began to accept the new Shawnee religion and join the groups at Prophetstown. The Kickapoos, Potawatomis, Ottawas, Chippewas, Crees, Winnebagos, Sacs, Miamis and Assiniboins were all converts. By 1807 Prophetstown had over 60 cabins and wigwams clustered around a frame council-house measuring about 150 by 34 feet. William Wells, the Indian agent at Fort Wayne, warned both then Governor Harrison and the Secretary of War that the Prophet constituted a serious threat and it was certainly true that most of these Indians had begun to sympathize more with the British in Canada than with the "Long Knives" Americans. Only the Shawnee clan led by Chief Black Hoof remained loyal to the United States. (Ref. 293 )

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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