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James madison administration(1809-1815) 4th president

In 1808 Congress had passed a law against the importation of slaves, but it was not strictly enforced because Eli Whitney's cotton gin initially made slave labor in the fields seem even more needed. In addition the invention of the gin introduced the principle of mass production to America, a feature which led to the Colt revolver, the sewing machine and the flour mill, revolutionizing the status of human labor, particularly in the western world and still more especially in the northern states. The north welcomed the Industrial Revolution while the south rejected it. After Jean Etienne Bore had demonstrated how to make granulated sugar from cane, a great sugar empire began to stretch along the Gulf. With the development of a steamboat which could go upstream against the Mississippi current, the sugar was sent to St. Louis, Louisville and Cincinnati for refining. (Ref. 39 )

Although a great statesman, Madison was a poor politician and as a result of his ineptitude and Napoleon's maneuverings, difficulties with England increased. Both French and English navies were seizing and even scuttling American vessels. In 1811 Madison forbade all intercourse with England and as Napoleon had closed all Europe to Britain at the same time, it made for a very bad winter in England. By 1812 the United States and England were at war.

In the meantime, as the Spanish Empire appeared to be breaking up, the inhabitants of "West Florida" elected for the United States and were soon incorporated as the Territory of Orleans (later part of the state of Louisiana. We must also discuss the Indian situation in the Ohio and Indiana regions at this time. By 1800 many Indians were ready to try the white man's ways. Late in 1801 a delegation of chiefs from the Potawatomis, Miamis, Delawares, Shawnees, Kickapoos and Kaskaskias visited the east and two of the chief s asked for government assistance. As a result, during that first decade of the century the federal government and various religious organizations sent funds, farming implements and advisors to those tribes. Yet most of the programs were mismanaged and unscrupulous agents even sold the farm implements to white settlers. But primarily the Indians themselves could not become adjusted to the new ways. The Shawnees, early known as the "Southerners" by other Algonquian-speaking peoples shared the same problems. Branches of this tribe were scattered across the south, the Gulf Coast, the Delaware Valley, Georgia and South Carolina at various periods. In this century many were settled in Ohio and Indiana when the white citizens there declared an "open season" on Shawnee property. That, along with Shawnee excessive drinking, economic difficulties and various injustices led to deterioration of relationships. Some of these Shawnees, including a young prince, Tecumseh, had fought against the Americans under "Mad Anthony" Wayne at the end of the last century. Now Tecumseh's brother Tenskwatawa, a Shawnee holy man, sought to save his people with a new mystic religion. Claiming that he had been appointed by the Great Spirit he established Prophetstown near where the Tippecanoe joins the Wabash River, denounced alcohol and polygamy and set up certain rituals. The future president William Henry Harrison kept pushing his land acquisitions and further antagonizing various tribes, all of which soon began to accept the new Shawnee religion and join the groups at Prophetstown. The Kickapoos, Potawatomis, Ottawas, Chippewas, Crees, Winnebagos, Sacs, Miamis and Assiniboins were all converts. By 1807 Prophetstown had over 60 cabins and wigwams clustered around a frame council-house measuring about 150 by 34 feet. William Wells, the Indian agent at Fort Wayne, warned both then Governor Harrison and the Secretary of War that the Prophet constituted a serious threat and it was certainly true that most of these Indians had begun to sympathize more with the British in Canada than with the "Long Knives" Americans. Only the Shawnee clan led by Chief Black Hoof remained loyal to the United States. (Ref. 293 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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