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In March, 1867, by Act of Congress, military rule replaced the civil administrations of the rebel states. The Union military enrolled a new electorate and proceeded to set up reconstructed state governments. This was accomplished by 1870. Those radical governments persisted in some states for up to 8 years - Louisiana, Florida and Texas - and while they were infamous for some types of corruption, they also accomplished some good legislation that resulted in rebuilding schools, roads, railroads, etc. But overall, those governments were bad and in the end neither the freed Negroes nor the Republican party profited.

More disgraceful activities followed - the impeachment of President Johnson

Fortunately the Senate, organized as a court under the Chief Justice, failed to convict Johnson and he remained in office
and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan.

The election of the war hero, GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT to the presidency started a dynasty of Republicans, which lasted almost to the end of the century. Unfortunately, below the presidency the corruption of the party was abominable. The Civil War, like every other war, had broken down morals and everyone was out to "make a fast buck". In addition stock speculation, over-rapid expansion of the agricultural west and a world-wide drop in prices brought on the panic of 1873 and a depression which lasted 3 years. Corruption and boss rule continued throughout the century. (Ref. 39 )

Expansion, development, and social changes in the last 30 years of the 19th century

An interesting feature of the last half of the century was the development of the Mormon culture in Utah. When Brigham Young had arrived in that area in 1841 it was the northern-most province of Mexico. The Mormons found a desert and made it over into one of the most fertile areas of the west and for many years they kept to themselves and practiced their religion, which included polygamy. When PRESIDENT GROVER CLEVELAND signed the act which made Utah the 45th state in the 1890s, however, polygamy had to stop. Some of the Mormons migrated to northern Mexico, rather than live under the Union's laws. (Ref. 39 )

During the period from 1850 to 1870 the high plains states and the Rocky Mountain areas enjoyed a very moist period, but that was followed by decades of drought, with a great reduction of grass. That had a serious effect on the cattle herds, with a drastic reduction in numbers and it would have been the same for the buffalo herds, reducing them by 50 to 70%, even if they hadn't been over hunted. The Sioux Indians of the Dakotas, who were originally farmers, only became buffalo hunters shortly before their extermination late in this century. The buffalo herds were cut in two by the railroad as it went west in the late 1860s. Up to the time of the Civil War, the eastern (Union Pacific) railroad went only to Council Bluffs, Iowa and there was a Central Pacific RR running north and southwest of the Sierras. In 1866 Congress allowed the two commercial companies to build, one from each direction, and meet wherever they chanced. For a single mile of track they needed 40 cars to carry 400 tons of rail and timber (for- ties, bridges, etc.), fuel and food. The Central Pacific had to get its materials, except for timber, by sea - some 12,000 miles around Cape Horn. Eastern work gangs were chiefly new immigrants, mainly Irish, using plenty of whiskey, while the western crews were primarily Chinese, needing tea.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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