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French crisis and some gunboat activity and blockades, the Siamese yielded and abandoned all claim to territory east of the Mekong. In 1897 the King of Siam paid an extended visit to the European capitals. (Ref. 8 , 276 )

Vietnam: french indochina

At the beginning of this l9th century most of present day North and South Vietnam and Laos, at one time all together called French IndoChina, was ruled by the Emperor of Annam and the region was predominantly Chinese in culture, with the empire acknowledging the suzerainty of the Chinese emperor. After a long period of dynastic struggles, the domain had been re-united by Gia Long (1802-1820) and he had been supported by the French missionary, Pigneau de Behaine. The French Catholics had freedom of action until after 1820 when a series of anti-Christian emperors came to power and they were then persecuted for 60 years. Because of that the French, with some Spanish, bombarded Tourane on the coast in 1858 and soon the French occupied Saigon in what was then called Cochin China. Subsequently the French explored both the Mekong and the Red rivers. About 1873 Francis Garnier, with a handful of men, attacked and took Hanoi and most of the Red River delta. In 1874, by a treaty signed at Saigon, the Annam emperor was forced to give a promise that his foreign policy would coincide with that of France and that he would recognize the French possession of Cochin China in exchange for the return of Hanoi. But the emperor appealed to China for aid and by 1885 France was at war with China. In the end France won control of all Annam and protective power over Cambodia and by 1893 had acquired a protectorate over Laos, which had long been in dispute between Siam and Annam. Paul Doumer, as governor-general over the vast French Indo-China, inaugurated far-reaching- reforms which modernized the region, but there was continued resistance to the westerners. The opposition in Annam was led by De Tham from after 1895 until well into the 20th century and there were revolts in Cambodia and Saigon in the 1885-1887 period. (Ref. 119 , 8 )


When Holland fell to French revolutionary troops in Europe, the British usurped Malacca and various southeastern Asian islands from the Dutch. Lt. Governor Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded Singapore in 1819 and it was soon to become a strategic and commercial center of the region. The Dutch, of course, were unhappy and all was not settled until the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, drawing a line through the straits of Malacca, with the English holding Singapore and Malacca, but giving up a west Sumatran settlement. There was a steady influx of Chinese laborers into the peninsula after 1850, with some working in the tin mines and some turning to piracy. The British abolished import duties on tin in 1853 and by 1900 Malaya furnished nearly 1/2 the world's supply. The rule of the British East India Company ended in 1867 and thereafter the Malayan Straits settlements had the status of a crown colony. Rubber was first grown there experimentally in 1894. (Ref. 8 )

Indonesia and adjacent islands

The British took Java from the Dutch in 1811, although after the fall of Napoleon in 1815 they restored many of the Dutch possessions, as noted above, retaining chiefly Singapore. It was during the English occupation in 1814, however, that the governor of Java, Thomas Raffles, learned of the ruins of Borobudur (see pages 501-2,531 and 567) and he initiated some minor cleaning work that was carried on later on a small scale by the Dutch for the remainder of the century. The first real reconstruction work was not carried out until the 20th century. (Ref. 286 ) In 1825 the Javanese revolted against the Dutch under the native leader, Dipo Negora, and it took 5 years for the Dutch to quiet things down. They then extended their control into the interior, forcing a new culture system, which involved government contracts, crop control and fixed prices, all very lucrative to the westerners. Quinchona plantations were established in Java in 1854, giving Europeans the first reliable source of the right kind of bark to supply quinine to protect them in their world-wide expansion. In 1,886 the Dutch even sent medical teams to the Indonesian colonies to study Beri-beri and they discovered the essence of the vitamin requirements, although the details were not actually clarified until after the turn of the century.

In the 1840s Great Britain again entered this area with a charter for the North Borneo Company which was to have a protectorate over Sarawak, with James Brooke becoming the Rajah of Sarawak. This upset the Dutch, but eventually by a treaty in 1891 the two European countries defined their respective domains in Borneo, with the Dutch retaining the larger part. (Ref. 8 , 140 , 211 )

The Philippines continued under Spanish control through most of the century, with the Spanish having great difficulty subjugating the war-like Moros. Although the growing of tobacco, sugar and hemp had been promoted, Manila was not officially opened to foreign traders until 1834. The Jesuit priests who had been expelled from the island in the last century now returned and gained much power and property. It was in opposition to that clergy that much sentiment arose for independence, with the rebels being led by Emilio Aguinaldo. When the Spanish-American war broke out, the Americans took Manila while Aguinaldo led a new insurrection. At the war's end, to the Philippine leader's great disappointment, the islands gained only American sovereignty, instead of Spanish. He then led still another revolution against the United States in 1899, but this quickly subsided to merely guerrilla warfare, although it cost 7,000 American casualties by the time of its termination in 1902. (Ref. 8 )

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Questions & Answers

What do we mean by Asian tigers
Aeesha Reply
Dm me I will tell u
What is Average revenue
How are u doing
it is so fantastic
what's a demand
Edward Reply
it is the quantity of commodities that consumers are willing and able to purchase at particular prices and at a given time
quantity of commodities dgat consumers are willing to pat at particular price
demand depends upon 2 things 1wish to buy 2 have purchasing power of that deserving commodity except any from both can't be said demand.
Demand is a various quantity of a commodities that a consumer is willing and able to buy at a particular price within a given period of time. All other things been equal.
State the law of demand
The desire to get something is called demand.
what is the use of something should pay for its opportunity foregone to indicate?
Random Reply
Why in monopoly does the firm maximize profits when its marginal revenue equals marginal cost
astrid Reply
different between economic n history
Falma Reply
If it is known that the base change of RM45 million, the statutory proposal ratio of 7 per cent, and the public cash holding ratio of 5 per cent, what is the proposed ratio of bank surplus to generate a total deposit of RM 300 million? 
Jeslyne Reply
In a single bank system, a bank can create a deposit when it receives a new deposit in cash. If a depositor puts a cash deposit of RM10,000 into the bank, assume the statutory reserve requirement is 7% and the bank adopts a surplus reserve of 8%. a. Calculate the amount of deposits made at the end o
the part of marginal revenue product curve lies in the _ stage of production is called form demand curve for variable input.
Bashir Reply
The cost associated with the inputs owned by the farmer is termed as
the cost associated with inputs owned by the farmer is termed as ____
why do we study economic
Nwobodo Reply
we study economics to know how to manage our limited resources
we study economics the know how to use our resources and where to put it
what is end
we study economics to make rational decision
we study economics only to know how to effectively and efficiently allocate our limited resource in other to meet our unlimited wants
We study economics inorder for us to know the difference of the needs and wants and aslo how to use the limited resources that are available
who is the father of economy
Yajanyi Reply
adam smith
Adam smith
professor Lionel Robins
adam smith
mariginal utility is finalized by who?
Adam Smith
Adam smith
Adam Smith
Adam smith
adam smith barter system
why we study economics
Kitojo Reply
what is equilibrium price?
This is the price In which quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied.
what is the principle of demand
is when the price of two item is equal
is the market price at which the demand curve and supply curve of particular commodity interest.
can we say that without macroeconomics,microeconomics can succeed? and why?
equilibrium price is when prices are equal
equilibrium price is a point at which demand and supply curve meet
please can you give us the correct answer after the lesson to be compared to our answers
Gloria Reply
in what?
why economics is the real life subject
because it is subjected to human decisions
why might an increase in money national income not necssarily lead to an increase in the standards of living
pls,who is a legal tender.can you explain well
Mary Reply
We think, that the legal tender is a form of payment of a debt or anything related, but which is not necessarily money. that can be bank notes, or coins for instance. but the bottom line is the legal tender is required to be recognized by the law, but it varies according to the jurisdiction.
Is it something like cheque
legal tender is anything that can be accepted for payment within a country
is Something legally accepted in a particular place
Who is a liquidator?
Isah Reply
pls,who is a legal tender
We think, that the legal tender is a form of payment of a debt or anything related, but which is not necessarily money. that can be bank notes, or coins for instance. but the bottom line is the legal tender is required to be recognized by the law, but it varies according to the jurisdiction.
s and D are the only in the firm.the face following playoff D gain: large budget. small Bud 30billon. 0 zero 70billon. 50milln s gains large budg. small bud 20millon. 0zero 30. 40
Mujahid Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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