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Throughout most of the century Korea remained under suzerainty of the Chinese Manchus, although with their own kings. After systemic persecution of Christians under the regent Tai Wen Kun, there were several western expeditions attacking Korea, including a French force and an American naval force under Captain Shufeldt. Three ports were opened to Japanese trade in 1876 and in 1882 a treaty with the United States, negotiated by Shufeldt, allowed certain extra-territorial rights and permission to trade. China and Japan then began to dispute rights of control over the peninsula. In 1894, led by a Japanese underworld strongman sent specifically for the purpose, a group of Koreans, the Tonghaks, known to favor closing the country to Japanese trade, started a revolution. When Chinese troops were being mobilized at the call of the Korean government and Czar Nicholas had massed troops on the northern Korean border, Japanese troops suddenly arrived by sea and occupied Seoul and other Korean cities. The Chinese navy, attempting to prevent reinforcements of the invaders, was sunk by the Japanese navy. The non-entity, who was the emperor of Korea, ran to Russia. China sued for peace, giving Japan the right to "protect" Korea, an indemnity and the island of Taiwan. But Russian influence was still dominant and a Russian-Korean Bank was formed, while timber and mining concessions were given to Russia. On June 9, 1896 Japan and Russia established the Labanov-Yamagata Agreement under which the two countries cooperated in the reform of the army and finances of Korea, but Russian penetration continued, setting the stage for the Russian-Japanese War in the next century. (Ref. 8 , 12 , 119 , 46 )

Southeast asia

Mainland southeast asia


Burma, having failed to invade Siam in the last century, now turned its expansion policy toward the west, threatening Bengal, seizing Manipur and Assam in 1822. This soon brought King Bagyidaw up against the British East India Company and in the next 62 years there were three Burmese Wars with the British. The latter won the first war of 1824-26 and annexed Assam, Arakan and Tenasserim to British India. After the 2nd war in 1852 the British occupied the Irrawaddy delta region and stimulated great rice production there, as well as opening up the great teak forests. After the 3rd war in 1886 Upper Burma was added to the British domain, although guerrilla activity continued for years, with 32,000 British troops still involved between 1886 and 1891. The Shan states were not subdued until 1887 and the Chin Hills not until 1891. (Ref. 8 , 175 , 119 )

Thailand: siam and cambodia

After the long conflict with Burma had ended, Siam secured part of Cambodia through division of that state with Annam and finally, in 1844, the whole of Cambodia passed under the protection of Siam's King Mongkut. Rama IV (1851-1868), ruler and monk, philosopher and scientist, who taught himself English and Latin, made a study of western governments and began the work of modernizing Siam. After new treaties were drawn up with Great Britain in 1855, consuls were established and trade agreements initiated. In 1863 the French established a protectorate over Cambodia and Siam gave up its claims to that region. The real founder of modern Siam was Rama V, Chulalongkorn. Under him the old feudal system was abolished, slavery was reduced and there was administrative reform with new taxation and finance methods, better postal service, the telegraph (1883) and the first railway in 1893. But the French had long been trying to extend their dominions westward to the Mekong River and finally, after an acute Anglo-

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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