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The aims of modern Japan were set at that time. Although the imperial family had always had a goal of expansion to eventually conquer the world, the group who wanted to first start north against Russia were represented by Iwakura and his clan and they were now out of favor. The apostles of the strike south concept, moving against the West through Singapore and Manila, were in the ascendancy and along with that the policy of exclusion of foreigners from the sacred soil was continued. In 1865, as Japan was preparing for civil war between the Shogun Tukugawa and the Lord of Choshu, the Perry treaty remained unfulfilled and the nation came to a standstill. It was not until the old emperor was assassinated in 1868 and the new Emperor Meiji took over that the troops of the Tokugawa Shogun were defeated and a new era of reform, including some breakdown of class distinction, transfer of the capital to Edo (now Tokyo) and the restrictions against westerners were temporarily lifted. The theory was that Japan must grow strong, expand overseas to establish a defense perimeter outside the sacred soil and only then expel the barbarians. Iwakura, back in power as an adviser, went overseas for 2 years to see what Japan had to contend with in the rest of the world, while the homeland began to industrialize. An anachronism is that even in this l9th century sugar cane was still milled by manpower, in Japan. (Ref. 260 ) Returning from abroad, Iwakura gradually forced Korea to open her ports to Japanese commerce by gun-boat diplomacy and at the same time, by getting hoarded gold from wealthy merchants, he stabilized Japan's economy and established public confidence in his currency and bonds. In a sense Japan became westernized by fiat. Militarism was reinforced, conscription was adopted late in the 1870s after a brief but brutal civil war and the army was organized on the Prussian model. (Ref. 279 ) Japanese merchants became the shipping magnates, the money lenders the financiers and the cities of Tokyo, Osaka, Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Kokura became great industrial centers. When the strong man Iwakura Tomoni died, Emperor Meiji himself, although remaining in the background, carefully continued the industrialization. His sons were educated in Europe at Sandhurst and St. Cyrl, the Polytechnique,- etc. learning the military physics and western arts of war. Saion ji Kinmochi, a prince of the Fujiwara family had gone abroad to study also in 1871 and remained in Paris 9 years. On his return home, he helped draft a constitution based primarily on Bismarck's for Germany, although he retained all-encompassing power for the emperor. It was presented to the people in 1889; (Ref. 139 , 12 , 8 , 242 )

The population of Japan in 1888 was 39,500,000 and the proportion living in cities of over 100,000 was small. This population was to double in the next 30 years, even though the Japanese islands are smaller than California, with only about 1/6 of the land arable. The Sino-Japanese War, beginning in 1894, had developed over the control of Korea and Taiwan and was simply a part of the long range plan of conquering both China and Russia. It started Japan on its course as a great power. Using their adequate coal deposits and their long standing copper industry, Japan launched heavy industry on a large scale after 1895. The ultimate result of all these political and commercial changes was a decline of the shoguns and a regaining of supreme powers by the emperors in a more overt manner. The Shinto religion was revised, the emperor was considered divine by lineage and wisdom and the country underwent an amazingly rapid transformation into a modern nation. There was improved agriculture as well industrialization and an improved silk worm culture allowed independence from the Chinese silk producers. Japanese settlers migrated throughout their empire, including the newly won Taiwan, obtained in the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895). Universal military service had been introduced in 1872 and the Gregorian calendar had been adopted in 1873. (Ref. 8 , 46 , 68 , 242 )

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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