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The population of China by 1850 was over 400,000,000

Contrasting to 4,000,000 in the United States at 1800 and 30,000,000 in the whole of Russia
and was beginning again to surpass food production. Corruption and indolence in government made things worse and unemployment increased. In addition there were Muslim uprisings which depopulated large areas in Yunnan between 1855 and 1873 and an area just south of the Great Wall in 1863 to 1873, Miao tribal uprisings in Kweichow between 1854 and 1873 and Nien rebels, who invaded Chihli in 1868 and the Hakka-Cantonese War in Kwantung between 1855 and 1857. (Ref. 101 , 12 , 8 )

Thus began China's modern history. In the last half of the century Manchu and true Chinese leaders tried to respond to economic and military incursions of the West with the so-called self strengthening movement, to adapt western technology without disturbing traditional political and social orders. From 1870 to near the end of the century it seemed to be working fairly well, but this was misleading and the imperial order completely fell a few years later. (Ref. 101 )

To leave the political scene for a bit, we should reiterate that by the 1820s Manchu China was the world's largest and most populous empire, directly controlling vast territories in inner Asia and drawing tribute f rom still larger areas including Korea, Indo-China, Siam, Burma and Nepal. A postal service with 2,000 express stations, over 30,000 horses and almost 50,000 foot messengers and 70,000 service people was used basically as a means of control by the imperial government. In 1855 troops were sent across the Salween River into Yunnan province to suppress some rebels in an area where bubonic plague was endemic. The troops not only contracted the disease but brought it back into the remainder of China and by 1894 it had reached Canton and Hong Kong. It was then that teams of scientists were sent in and the bacillus Pasteurella pestis identified and the mode of transmission, by fleas from rodents to men, was established. In the meantime steamships were carrying the disease f rom China around the world. Chinese medicine continued to fascinate the West. The Pharmacopoeia, called Pen Ts'ao, listed many wines. Tortoise wine was good for bronchitis; snake wine was curative of palsy; dog wine helped lassitude and mutton wine was good for the testicles. (Ref. 8 , 140 , 211 , 213 )

We must include a few words about Chinese paintings. Japanese collectors have given the impression that Sung paintings are great, Yuan occasionally good, and Ming and Ch'ing increasingly imitative and sterile. This not what the Chinese themselves think, but their traditions are not those of the West. Their paintings of ten have no background at all and they feel no compulsion to fill up the canvas with details. Similarly they do not handicap themselves with convention about perspective. In landscapes particularly, the viewer might consider himself as if suspended in air, shif ting about to view different parts of the scene. (Ref. 101 )

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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