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Europe (a "french century", with a decline of religion in political affairs)

Back to Europe: A.D. 1601 to 1700

Even before the Industrial Revolution of the last quarter of this century, there was dramatic change in Europe. Spain and Italy were declining rapidly, while England, France, Sweden (exploiting mineral resources) were developing quickly. But it was a century of almost constant warfare, with conflict going on in some area all the time and in several localities at once most of the time. (Ref. 8 ) McNeill (Ref. 279 ) emphasizes that there were four limits to the existing military organizations:

  • The difficulty of controlling the movements of an army of more than about 50,000 men. New forms of communication and more accurate terrain maps were needed
  • Slow transport of supplies. Food for the men and fodder for thousands of horses made a bulky and awkward supply train. Living off the countryside destroyed the tax-base and allowed the soldiers to get out of control as they became immersed in plunder, so the rulers sought to supply armies from the rear
  • Organizational and tactical problems. With the long history of mercenary contingents and patronage appointments, it was difficult to organize an effective, cohesive army based on training and ability, tempered with seniority
  • Sociological and psychological restraints. Peasants were needed to produce the food and townsmen to provide the money, so that it was difficult to recruit enough men for a professional army without infringing on those two necessary groups

The answer to some of the above situations was in the development of new technology in weapons, such as mobile field artillery; development of accurate small-scale mapping; the break-down of the armies to divisions, units of about 12,000 men, but complete within themselves, with infantry, cavalry, artillery and all supportive elements; and better road-building .

At the same time, in spite of the warfare, the 18th century saw the heyday of wealthy merchants all over Europe. (Ref. 292 ) The philosophers were convinced that this was an age of enlightenment and progress, but it was a time of bungling politicians, greedy nobles, of immorality and corruption also. There were other paradoxes. In spite of great scientific advancements in physics and chemistry, the practice of medicine lagged far behind and may even have declined. Bleeding, cupping and purging remained prominent treatments. (Ref. 125 ) An estimated 60 million Europeans died of small-pox in the century and early there was an extensive famine, as frost killed crops as far south as the Mediterranean coast. The winter of 1709 was especially severe, with most northern rivers and even ocean coastal waters frozen. (Ref. 222 ) Typhus fever took its own toll, with a severe epidemic in Sweden and the loss of 30,000 people in France in mid-century. Yellow fever killed 10,000 in Cadiz, Spain. (Ref. 222 )

The population of Europe went from 140 to 188 million from 1750 to 1800. The majority of the people were illiterate. In the f irst half of the century their civilization was based almost as much on wine as on wheat. Europe as a whole must have been burning 200 million tons of wood yearly up until about 1790 when coal came into more common usage. At the same time there were approximately 14 million horses, 24 million oxen, the equivalent of 4 to 5 million horsepower in the form of wood, 1.5 to 3 million horsepower potential in 600,000 watermills, 900,000 horsepower in the 50 million human workers and 233,000 horsepower in the form of sails, not counting war-fleets. (Ref. 211 , 260 )

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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