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Sikhism was developed at the warring frontier of the Punjab from the impact of monotheistic Islam on polytheistic Hinduism. It was founded by an Hindu guru trying to reconcile the two faiths, using ideas favored by the Moguls. Hounded by the Mogul cruelty, however, Nanak, the 10th guru of Sikhism, converted the new religion into a fighting faith and from that time on every Sikh's name ended with Singh, meaning "lion" and every one had to follow the law of the five K's: (1) Kesh - let beards grow. (2) Khangha - keep a steel comb in uncut hair. (3) Kucha - wear shorts for warrior's mobility. (4) Kara - wear steel bangle on right wrist. (5) Kirpan - go with a sword.

All were advised to ref rain from smoking, drinking alcohol, uniting with Moslem women and eating meat which had been slaughtered by Moslems, i.e. by cutting throats. Their most sacred site was the Golden Temple which sheltered their Holy Book, the Granth Sahib, at their capital at Amritsar. (Ref. 37 )

In the south, the Empire Vijayanger, with the capital city of the same name, remained prosperous under a great King Krishna deva Raya. The city occupied an area of 60 square miles in circumference. Contrary to the situation in the north, gold coins were the major currency in the Deccan and at lower levels silver and copper were used along with sea shell money. India had no gold of its own, however, and the money came from the West for Indian merchandise. A great textile business had developed in Guijerat and there was an enormous burst of industrialism there in this 16th century. (Ref. 260 ) Buddhism had lost its hold in the south and a form of Brahmanism that honored Vishnu had become the faith of the people and the cow became holy. In 1565 the Vijayanager Empire fell in a day in the battle of Talikota to a coalition of Moslems, chiefly from Iran and Turkistan.

Despite the political eclipse of Hinduism by the Moslem conquerors, the overwhelming majority of the natives remained faithful to their ancient religion and considered Moslems as simply another caste. Hindu high culture, however, was impoverished and construction of Hindu temples came to a halt. The use of vernacular tongues for Hindu literature was promoted by the poet Sur Das and a new religious fervor was developed in Bengal as the holy man, Chaitanya, began to be considered God incarnate, a reincarnation of Vishnu. (Ref. 139 )

It should be noted that in the interior of India, where water transportation was not available, imperial consolidation was most difficult because of the problem of obtaining cannon at battle sites. Babur attempted to cast cannon on the spot and at the end of the century Akbar hauled some overland and - thus both obtained large areas of domination. (Ref. 279 )

The Portuguese began their conquests in India with a sea battle off the port of Diu in 1509 and the superiority of their long range weapons, accurate up to 200 yards, pre- vented the Moslem fleet's "board and fight" technique and led to easy victory. By 1537 the Portuguese had established trading posts on the Hooghly River, off the Bay of Bengal. The Hooghly is a secondary branch of the Ganges, going to the sea, although it is still "Mother Ganges" to the Hindus. The larger Ganges branch, the Padma, goes eastward into west Bengal. (Ref. 172 ) The East India Trading Company, as we noted previously, was founded in London September 24, 1599 with an initial capital of 72,000 British pounds and 125 shareholders. It was formed to compete against Dutch privateers who controlled the spice trade. Eight months later, in August of 1600, the 500 ton galleon Hector dropped anchor just north of Bombay and its Captain William Hawkins set off to explore the interior where he finally met Emperor Jehangir, the world's richest monarch and the fourth of the great Moguls. (Ref. 37 )

Sri Lanka did not escape the Portuguese, who landed in 1505 and who soon controlled most of the island and its spice trade, giving it the name "Ceilao". Only the mountain kingdom of Kandy escaped them. (Ref. 175 , 108 ) (Continue on page 902)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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