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This module provides the opportunity for students to apply what they've learned about probability to solve a series of problems given a set of data. Students will practice constructing and interpreting contingency tables. This revision of the original module by S. Dean and Dr. B. Illowsky has been modified as follows: the data has been presented here in tabular form.

Student learning objectives

  • The student will practice constructing and interpreting contingency tables.

Given

An article in the New England Journal of Medicine ( by Haiman, Stram, Wilkens, Pike, et al., 1/26/06 ), reported about a study of smokers in California and Hawaii. In one part of the report, the self-reported ethnicity and smoking levels per day were given. Of the people smoking at most 10 cigarettes per day, there were 9886 African Americans, 2745 Native Hawaiians, 12,831 Latinos, 8378 Japanese Americans, and 7650 Whites. Of the people smoking 11-20 cigarettes per day, there were 6514 African Americans, 3062 Native Hawaiians, 4932 Latinos, 10,680 Japanese Americans, and 9877 Whites. Of the people smoking 21-30 cigarettes per day, there were 1671 African Americans, 1419 Native Hawaiians, 1406 Latinos, 4715 Japanese Americans, and 6062 Whites. Of the people smoking at least 31 cigarettes per day, there were 759 African Americans, 788 Native Hawaiians, 800 Latinos, 2305 Japanese Americans, and 3970 Whites.

Complete the table

Verify that the data above is entered into the table correctly.

Smoking levels by ethnicity
Smoking Level African American Native Hawaiian Latino Japanese Americans White TOTALS
1-10 9886 2745 12831 8378 7650 41490
11-20 6514 3062 4932 10680 9877 35065
21-30 1671 1419 1406 4715 6062 15273
31+ 759 788 800 2305 3970 8622
TOTALS 18830 8014 19969 26078 27559 100450

Analyze the data

Suppose that one person from the study is randomly selected.

Find the probability that person smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day.

35,065 100,450

Find the probability that person was Latino.

19,969 100,450

Discussion questions

In words, explain what it means to pick one person from the study and that person is “Japanese American AND smokes 21-30 cigarettes per day.” Also, find the probability.

4,715 100,450

In words, explain what it means to pick one person from the study and that person is “Japanese American OR smokes 21-30 cigarettes per day.” Also, find the probability.

36,636 100,450

In words, explain what it means to pick one person from the study and that person is “Japanese American GIVEN that person smokes 21-30 cigarettes per day.” Also, find the probability.

4715 15,273

Prove that smoking level/day and ethnicity are dependent events.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics: custom version modified by r. bloom. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2010 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10617/1.4
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