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Die aarde en daarbuite


Opvoeders afdeling


1. krake in die aardkors


2. aardkors

3. lawa koel af en stol as grys / swart basalt

4. rooi gesmelte lawa

5. krater van die vulkaan

6. magma vorm lawa

Opdrag 5:

1. Magma (lawa) sal die vinnigste afkoel sodra dit by die vulkaan uitgebars het en teen die berghelling afloop.

Rede: Min Lawa, blootgestel aan die “koeler” atmosfeer.

2. Graniet word diep onder die aardkors aangetref.

Rede: Magma moet stadig kan afkoel om graniet te vorm.

3. Diep onder die aardkors.

4. Diep onder die aardkors.

Rede: Die omringende rotse hou die magma baie lank warm. Dus kan dit nie vinnig afkoel nie.

5. Basalt word teen die berghellings van die vulkaan aangetref.

Rede: Basalt word gevorm as lawa vinnig afkoel. Dit moet dus buite die aardkors wees.

6. Die kleinste kristalle kom in basalt voor – dus teen die berghellings en valleie naby die vulkaan.

Leerder afdeling


Aangesien saad nie ewe goed in alle tipes grond groei nie, kyk ons vervolgens na die verskillende tipes gesteentes waaruit die aardkors bestaan.

  • Gesteentes verwys na die materiaal waaruit die aardkors bestaan. Gesteentes word in drie groepe verdeel, nl. stollingsgesteentes, sedimentêre gesteentes en metamorfiese gesteentes.

Aktiwiteit: om stollingsgesteentes as ‘n tipe gesteente te kan bespreek [lu 2.1]

  • Hierdie tipe gesteente is die primêre, oorspronklike gesteente waaruit die aarde se oppervlak bestaan.
  • Die eerste gesteentes van die aarde was stollingsgesteentes en hulle het gevorm toe die planeet begin afkoel het. Die gesteentes is ook baie hard en bestaan uit verskillende kristalle.

Deursnit deur ‘n vulkaan


1. ___________________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________________________

  • Ons kan sien hoe stollingsgesteentes gevorm word deur op te let wat met lawa gebeur wat by ‘n vulkaan uitbars. Soos die lawa teen die berghelling afloop, koel dit af en verhard.
  • Basalt word gevorm na die uitbarsting van ‘n vulkaan. Die lawa koel vinnig af, die kristalle is klein en die kleur wissel tussen donkergrys en swart. Somtyds is die rots oortrek met klein gaatjies wat gevorm is deur klein gasborreltjies. Hierdie gesteente word dan gebruik om ‘n puimsteen van te maak. Mense gebruik dit om droë vel van hul voete af te skuur.

  • Die bekendste soort rots wat deur magma gevorm word, is egter graniet. Graniet word gevorm wanneer magma stadig onder die aarde se oppervlak afkoel. Dis baie hard en bestaan hoofsaaklik uit room, wit en swart kristalle. Pienk en geel kristalle word ook in ‘n mindere mate gevorm. Aangesien dit stadig afkoel, het die minerale in die rots tyd om groter kristalle te vorm.


Bestudeer die volgende diagram en beantwoord die vrae:

1. Waar sal die magma die vinnigste afkoel? Hoekom?





2. Waar sal jy graniet aantref? Verduidelik hoekom.





3. Waar sal die grootste kristalle aangetref word as die magma begin hard word?





4. Waar sal die magma die stadigste afkoel? Hoekom?





5. Waar sal jy basalt aantref? Verduidelik hoekom.





6. Waar sal die kleinste kristalle aangetref word?





Summatief: 10


Leeruitkomste 2: Die leerder ken, interpreteer en pas wetenskaplike, tegnologiese en omgewingskennis toe.

Assesseringstandaard 2.1: Dis duidelik wanneer die leerder inligting interpreteer.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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