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This module introduces Venn diagrams as a method for solving some probability problems. This module is included in the Elementary Statistics textbook/collection as an optional lesson.

A Venn diagram is a picture that represents the outcomes of an experiment. It generally consists of a box that represents the sample space S together with circles or ovals. The circles or ovals represent events.

Suppose an experiment has the outcomes 1, 2, 3, ... , 12 where each outcome has an equal chance of occurring. Let event A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and event B = {6, 7, 8, 9} . Then A AND B = {6} and A OR B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} . The Venn diagram is as follows:

A Venn diagram. An oval representing set A contains the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. An oval representing set B also contains the 6, along with 7, 8, and 9. The values 10, 11, and 12 are present but not contained in either set.
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Flip 2 fair coins. Let A = tails on the first coin. Let B = tails on the second coin. Then A = { TT , TH } and B = { TT , HT } . Therefore, A AND B = { TT } . A OR B = { TH , TT , HT } .

The sample space when you flip two fair coins is S = { HH , HT , TH , TT } . The outcome HH is in neither A nor B . The Venn diagram is as follows:

Venn diagram with set A containing Tails + Heads and Tails + Tails, and set B containing Tails + Tails and Head + Tails. Head + Heads is contained in neither set, and set A and set B share Tails + Tails.
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Forty percent of the students at a local college belong to a club and 50% work part time. Five percent of the students work part time and belong to a club. Draw a Venn diagram showing the relationships. Let C = student belongs to a club and PT = student works part time.

Venn diagram with one set containing students in clubs and students in clubs and working part-time and another set containing C/PT and students working part-time. Both sets share  C/PT.

If a student is selected at random find

  • The probability that the student belongs to a club. P(C) = 0.40 .
  • The probability that the student works part time. P(PT) = 0.50 .
  • The probability that the student belongs to a club AND works part time. P(C AND PT) = 0.05 .
  • The probability that the student belongs to a club given that the student works part time.
    P(C|PT)  =  P(C AND PT) P(PT)  =  0.05 0.50  =  0.1
  • The probability that the student belongs to a club OR works part time.
    P(C OR PT) = P(C) + P(PT) - P(C AND PT) = 0.40 + 0.50 - 0.05 = 0.85
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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
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da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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1 It is estimated that 30% of all drivers have some kind of medical aid in South Africa. What is the probability that in a sample of 10 drivers: 3.1.1 Exactly 4 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.2 At least 2 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.3 More than 9 will have a medical aid.
Nerisha Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 03, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10522/1.40
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