<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Two sets of Lewis dot structures are shown. The left structures depict five C l symbols in a cross shape with eight dots around each, the word “or” and the same five C l symbols, connected by four single bonds in a cross shape. The name “Carbon tetrachloride” is written below the structure. The right hand structures show a S i symbol, surrounded by eight dots and four H symbols in a cross shape. The word “or” separates this from an S i symbol with four single bonds connecting the four H symbols in a cross shape. The name “Silane” is written below these diagrams.

Group 15 elements such as nitrogen have five valence electrons in the atomic Lewis symbol: one lone pair and three unpaired electrons. To obtain an octet, these atoms form three covalent bonds, as in NH 3 (ammonia). Oxygen and other atoms in group 16 obtain an octet by forming two covalent bonds:

Three Lewis structures labeled, “Ammonia,” “Water,” and “Hydrogen fluoride” are shown. The left structure shows a nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons and single bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The middle structure shows an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons and two singly-bonded hydrogen atoms. The right structure shows a hydrogen atom single bonded to a fluorine atom that has three lone pairs of electrons.

Double and triple bonds

As previously mentioned, when a pair of atoms shares one pair of electrons, we call this a single bond. However, a pair of atoms may need to share more than one pair of electrons in order to achieve the requisite octet. A double bond    forms when two pairs of electrons are shared between a pair of atoms, as between the carbon and oxygen atoms in CH 2 O (formaldehyde) and between the two carbon atoms in C 2 H 4 (ethylene):

Two pairs of Lewis structures are shown. The left pair of structures shows a carbon atom forming single bonds to two hydrogen atoms. There are four electrons between the C atom and an O atom. The O atom also has two pairs of dots. The word “or” separates this structure from the same diagram, except this time there is a double bond between the C atom and O atom. The name, “Formaldehyde” is written below these structures. A right-facing arrow leads to two more structures. The left shows two C atoms with four dots in between them and each forming single bonds to two H atoms. The word “or” lies to the left of the second structure, which is the same except that the C atoms form double bonds with one another. The name, “Ethylene” is written below these structures.

A triple bond    forms when three electron pairs are shared by a pair of atoms, as in carbon monoxide (CO) and the cyanide ion (CN ):

Two pairs of Lewis structures are shown and connected by a right-facing arrow. The left pair of structures show a C atom and an O atom with six dots in between them and a lone pair on each. The word “or” and the same structure with a triple bond in between the C atom and O atom also are shown. The name “Carbon monoxide” is written below this structure. The right pair of structures show a C atom and an N atom with six dots in between them and a lone pair on each. The word “or” and the same structure with a triple bond in between the C atom and N atom also are shown. The name “Cyanide ion” is written below this structure.

Writing lewis structures with the octet rule

For very simple molecules and molecular ions, we can write the Lewis structures by merely pairing up the unpaired electrons on the constituent atoms. See these examples:

Three reactions are shown with Lewis dot diagrams. The first shows a hydrogen with one red dot, a plus sign and a bromine with seven dots, one of which is red, connected by a right-facing arrow to a hydrogen and bromine with a pair of red dots in between them. There are also three lone pairs on the bromine. The second reaction shows a hydrogen with a coefficient of two and one red dot, a plus sign, and a sulfur atom with six dots, two of which are red, connected by a right facing arrow to two hydrogen atoms and one sulfur atom. There are two red dots in between the two hydrogen atoms and the sulfur atom. Both pairs of these dots are red. The sulfur atom also has two lone pairs of dots. The third reaction shows two nitrogen atoms each with five dots, three of which are red, separated by a plus sign, and connected by a right-facing arrow to two nitrogen atoms with six red electron dots in between one another. Each nitrogen atom also has one lone pair of electrons.

For more complicated molecules and molecular ions, it is helpful to follow the step-by-step procedure outlined here:

  1. Determine the total number of valence (outer shell) electrons. For cations, subtract one electron for each positive charge. For anions, add one electron for each negative charge.
  2. Draw a skeleton structure of the molecule or ion, arranging the atoms around a central atom. (Generally, the least electronegative element should be placed in the center.) Connect each atom to the central atom with a single bond (one electron pair).
  3. Distribute the remaining electrons as lone pairs on the terminal atoms (except hydrogen), completing an octet around each atom.
  4. Place all remaining electrons on the central atom.
  5. Rearrange the electrons of the outer atoms to make multiple bonds with the central atom in order to obtain octets wherever possible.

Let us determine the Lewis structures of SiH 4 , CHO 2 , NO + , and OF 2 as examples in following this procedure:

  1. Determine the total number of valence (outer shell) electrons in the molecule or ion.
    • For a molecule, we add the number of valence electrons on each atom in the molecule:
      SiH 4 Si: 4 valence electrons/atom × 1 atom = 4 + H: 1 valence electron/atom × 4 atoms = 4 ¯ = 8 valence electrons
    • For a negative ion , such as CHO 2 , we add the number of valence electrons on the atoms to the number of negative charges on the ion (one electron is gained for each single negative charge):
      CHO 2 C: 4 valence electrons/atom × 1 atom = 4 H: 1 valence electron/atom × 1 atom = 1 O: 6 valence electrons/atom × 2 atoms = 12 + 1 additional electron = 1 ¯ = 18 valence electrons
    • For a positive ion , such as NO + , we add the number of valence electrons on the atoms in the ion and then subtract the number of positive charges on the ion (one electron is lost for each single positive charge) from the total number of valence electrons:
      NO + N: 5 valence electrons/atom × 1 atom = 5 O: 6 valence electron/atom × 1 atom = 6 + −1 electron (positive charge) = −1 ¯ = 10 valence electrons
    • Since OF 2 is a neutral molecule, we simply add the number of valence electrons:
      OF 2 O: 6 valence electrons/atom × 1 atom = 6 + F: 7 valence electrons/atom × 2 atoms = 14 ¯ = 20 valence electrons
  2. Draw a skeleton structure of the molecule or ion, arranging the atoms around a central atom and connecting each atom to the central atom with a single (one electron pair) bond. (Note that we denote ions with brackets around the structure, indicating the charge outside the brackets:)
    Four Lewis diagrams are shown. The first shows one silicon single boned to four hydrogen atoms. The second shows a carbon which forms a single bond with an oxygen and a hydrogen and a double bond with a second oxygen. This structure is surrounded by brackets and has a superscripted negative sign near the upper right corner. The third structure shows a nitrogen single bonded to an oxygen and surrounded by brackets with a superscripted plus sign in the upper right corner. The last structure shows two fluorine atoms single bonded to a central oxygen.
    When several arrangements of atoms are possible, as for CHO 2 , we must use experimental evidence to choose the correct one. In general, the less electronegative elements are more likely to be central atoms. In CHO 2 , the less electronegative carbon atom occupies the central position with the oxygen and hydrogen atoms surrounding it. Other examples include P in POCl 3 , S in SO 2 , and Cl in ClO 4 . An exception is that hydrogen is almost never a central atom. As the most electronegative element, fluorine also cannot be a central atom.
  3. Distribute the remaining electrons as lone pairs on the terminal atoms (except hydrogen) to complete their valence shells with an octet of electrons.
    • There are no remaining electrons on SiH 4 , so it is unchanged:
      Four Lewis structures are shown. The first shows one silicon single boned to four hydrogen atoms. The second shows a carbon single bonded to two oxygen atoms that each have three lone pairs and single bonded to a hydrogen. This structure is surrounded by brackets and has a superscripted negative sign near the upper right corner. The third structure shows a nitrogen single bonded to an oxygen, each with three lone pairs of electrons. This structure is surrounded by brackets with a superscripted plus sign in the upper right corner. The last structure shows two fluorine atoms, each with three lone pairs of electrons, single bonded to a central oxygen.
  4. Place all remaining electrons on the central atom.
    • For SiH 4 , CHO 2 , and NO + , there are no remaining electrons; we already placed all of the electrons determined in Step 1.
    • For OF 2 , we had 16 electrons remaining in Step 3, and we placed 12, leaving 4 to be placed on the central atom:
      A Lewis structure shows two fluorine atoms, each with three lone pairs of electrons, single bonded to a central oxygen which has two lone pairs of electrons.
  5. Rearrange the electrons of the outer atoms to make multiple bonds with the central atom in order to obtain octets wherever possible.
    • SiH 4 : Si already has an octet, so nothing needs to be done.
    • CHO 2 : We have distributed the valence electrons as lone pairs on the oxygen atoms, but the carbon atom lacks an octet:
      Two Lewis diagrams are shown with the word “gives” in between them. The left diagram, surrounded by brackets and with a superscripted negative sign, shows a carbon atom single bonded to two oxygen atoms, each with three lone pairs of electrons. The carbon atom also forms a single bond with a hydrogen atom. A curved arrow points from a lone pair on one of the oxygen atoms to the carbon atom. The right diagram, surrounded by brackets and with a superscripted negative sign, shows a carbon atom single bonded to an oxygen atom with three lone pairs of electrons, double bonded to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons, and single bonded to a hydrogen atom.
    • NO + : For this ion, we added eight valence electrons, but neither atom has an octet. We cannot add any more electrons since we have already used the total that we found in Step 1, so we must move electrons to form a multiple bond:
      Two Lewis diagrams are shown with the word “gives” in between them. The left diagram, surrounded by brackets and with a superscripted positive sign, shows a nitrogen atom single bonded to an oxygen atom, each with two lone pairs of electrons. The right diagram, surrounded by brackets and with a superscripted positive sign, shows a nitrogen atom double bonded to an oxygen atom. The nitrogen atom has two lone pairs of electrons and the oxygen atom has one.
      This still does not produce an octet, so we must move another pair, forming a triple bond:
      A Lewis structure shows a nitrogen atom with one lone pair of electrons triple bonded to an oxygen with a lone pair of electrons. The structure is surrounded by brackets and has a superscripted positive sign.
    • In OF 2 , each atom has an octet as drawn, so nothing changes.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
how do you find theWhat are the wavelengths and energies per photon of two lines
caroline Reply
The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
razzyd Reply
A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
ifunanya Reply
4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
Kyndall Reply
Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
Gabe Reply
Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF
Tarun Reply
Practice Key Terms 9

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Ut austin - principles of chemistry' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask