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Phet explorations: generator

Generate electricity with a bar magnet! Discover the physics behind the phenomena by exploring magnets and how you can use them to make a bulb light.

Generator

Section summary

  • Direct current (DC) is the flow of electric current in only one direction. It refers to systems where the source voltage is constant.
  • The voltage source of an alternating current (AC) system puts out V = V 0 sin 2 π ft size 12{V = V rSub { size 8{0} } "sin2"π ital "ft"} {} , where V size 12{V} {} is the voltage at time t size 12{t} {} , V 0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the peak voltage, and f size 12{f} {} is the frequency in hertz.
  • In a simple circuit, I = V/R size 12{I = ital "V/R"} {} and AC current is I = I 0 sin 2 π ft size 12{I = I rSub { size 8{0} } "sin2"π ital "ft"} {} , where I size 12{I} {} is the current at time t size 12{t} {} , and I 0 = V 0 /R size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } = V rSub { size 8{0} } ital "/R"} {} is the peak current.
  • The average AC power is P ave = 1 2 I 0 V 0 size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {1} over {2} } I rSub { size 8{0} } V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} .
  • Average (rms) current I rms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} and average (rms) voltage V rms size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} are I rms = I 0 2 size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {I rSub { size 8{0} } } over { sqrt {2} } } } {} and V rms = V 0 2 size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{0} } } over { sqrt {2} } } } {} , where rms stands for root mean square.
  • Thus, P ave = I rms V rms size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} .
  • Ohm’s law for AC is I rms = V rms R size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } over {R} } } {} .
  • Expressions for the average power of an AC circuit are P ave = I rms V rms , P ave = V rms 2 R , and P ave = I rms 2 R , analogous to the expressions for DC circuits.

Conceptual questions

Give an example of a use of AC power other than in the household. Similarly, give an example of a use of DC power other than that supplied by batteries.

Why do voltage, current, and power go through zero 120 times per second for 60-Hz AC electricity?

You are riding in a train, gazing into the distance through its window. As close objects streak by, you notice that the nearby fluorescent lights make dashed streaks. Explain.

Problem exercises

(a) What is the hot resistance of a 25-W light bulb that runs on 120-V AC? (b) If the bulb’s operating temperature is 2700º C , what is its resistance at 2600º C ?

Certain heavy industrial equipment uses AC power that has a peak voltage of 679 V. What is the rms voltage?

480 V

A certain circuit breaker trips when the rms current is 15.0 A. What is the corresponding peak current?

Military aircraft use 400-Hz AC power, because it is possible to design lighter-weight equipment at this higher frequency. What is the time for one complete cycle of this power?

2.50 ms

A North American tourist takes his 25.0-W, 120-V AC razor to Europe, finds a special adapter, and plugs it into 240 V AC. Assuming constant resistance, what power does the razor consume as it is ruined?

In this problem, you will verify statements made at the end of the power losses for [link] . (a) What current is needed to transmit 100 MW of power at a voltage of 25.0 kV? (b) Find the power loss in a 1 . 00 - Ω size 12{1 "." "00"- %OMEGA } {} transmission line. (c) What percent loss does this represent?

(a) 4.00 kA

(b) 16.0 MW

(c) 16.0%

A small office-building air conditioner operates on 408-V AC and consumes 50.0 kW. (a) What is its effective resistance? (b) What is the cost of running the air conditioner during a hot summer month when it is on 8.00 h per day for 30 days and electricity costs 9.00 cents /kW h size 12{9 "." "00"" cents/kw" cdot h} {} ?

What is the peak power consumption of a 120-V AC microwave oven that draws 10.0 A?

2.40 kW

What is the peak current through a 500-W room heater that operates on 120-V AC power?

Two different electrical devices have the same power consumption, but one is meant to be operated on 120-V AC and the other on 240-V AC. (a) What is the ratio of their resistances? (b) What is the ratio of their currents? (c) Assuming its resistance is unaffected, by what factor will the power increase if a 120-V AC device is connected to 240-V AC?

(a) 4.0

(b) 0.50

(c) 4.0

Nichrome wire is used in some radiative heaters. (a) Find the resistance needed if the average power output is to be 1.00 kW utilizing 120-V AC. (b) What length of Nichrome wire, having a cross-sectional area of 5.00 mm 2 size 12{5 "." "00"" mm" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , is needed if the operating temperature is 500º C size 12{"500"°C} {} ? (c) What power will it draw when first switched on?

Find the time after t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} when the instantaneous voltage of 60-Hz AC first reaches the following values: (a) V 0 / 2 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } /2} {} (b) V 0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} (c) 0.

(a) 1.39 ms

(b) 4.17 ms

(c) 8.33 ms

(a) At what two times in the first period following t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} does the instantaneous voltage in 60-Hz AC equal V rms size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} ? (b) V rms size 12{-V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} ?

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics ii. OpenStax CNX. Nov 29, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11458/1.2
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