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Photograph of transformers installed in transmission lines.
Power is distributed over large distances at high voltage to reduce power loss in the transmission lines. The voltages generated at the power plant are stepped up by passive devices called transformers (see Transformers ) to 330,000 volts (or more in some places worldwide). At the point of use, the transformers reduce the voltage transmitted for safe residential and commercial use. (Credit: GeorgHH, Wikimedia Commons)

Power losses are less for high-voltage transmission

(a) What current is needed to transmit 100 MW of power at 200 kV? (b) What is the power dissipated by the transmission lines if they have a resistance of 1 . 00 Ω size 12{1 "." "00" %OMEGA } {} ? (c) What percentage of the power is lost in the transmission lines?

Strategy

We are given P ave = 100 MW size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } ="100"`"MW"} {} , V rms = 200 kV size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } ="200"`"kV"} {} , and the resistance of the lines is R = 1 . 00 Ω size 12{R=1 "." "00"` %OMEGA } {} . Using these givens, we can find the current flowing (from P = IV size 12{P = ital "IV"} {} ) and then the power dissipated in the lines ( P = I 2 R size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R} {} ), and we take the ratio to the total power transmitted.

Solution

To find the current, we rearrange the relationship P ave = I rms V rms size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} and substitute known values. This gives

I rms = P ave V rms = 100 × 10 6 W 200 × 10 3 V = 500 A . size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } over {V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } } = { {"100 " times " 10" rSup { size 8{6} } " W"} over {"200 " times " 10" rSup { size 8{3} } " V"} } =" 500 A"} {}

Solution

Knowing the current and given the resistance of the lines, the power dissipated in them is found from P ave = I rms 2 R size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } rSup { size 8{2} } R} {} . Substituting the known values gives

P ave = I rms 2 R = ( 500 A ) 2 ( 1 . 00 Ω ) = 250 kW . size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } rSup { size 8{2} } R = \( "500 A" \) rSup { size 8{2} } \( 1 "." "00 " %OMEGA \) =" 250 kW"} {}

Solution

The percent loss is the ratio of this lost power to the total or input power, multiplied by 100:

% loss= 250 kW 100 MW × 100 = 0 . 250 % . size 12{%" loss=" { {"250"" kW"} over {"100"" MW"} } ´"100"=0 "." "250 %"} {}

Discussion

One-fourth of a percent is an acceptable loss. Note that if 100 MW of power had been transmitted at 25 kV, then a current of 4000 A would have been needed. This would result in a power loss in the lines of 16.0 MW, or 16.0% rather than 0.250%. The lower the voltage, the more current is needed, and the greater the power loss in the fixed-resistance transmission lines. Of course, lower-resistance lines can be built, but this requires larger and more expensive wires. If superconducting lines could be economically produced, there would be no loss in the transmission lines at all. But, as we shall see in a later chapter, there is a limit to current in superconductors, too. In short, high voltages are more economical for transmitting power, and AC voltage is much easier to raise and lower, so that AC is used in most large-scale power distribution systems.

It is widely recognized that high voltages pose greater hazards than low voltages. But, in fact, some high voltages, such as those associated with common static electricity, can be harmless. So it is not voltage alone that determines a hazard. It is not so widely recognized that AC shocks are often more harmful than similar DC shocks. Thomas Edison thought that AC shocks were more harmful and set up a DC power-distribution system in New York City in the late 1800s. There were bitter fights, in particular between Edison and George Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla, who were advocating the use of AC in early power-distribution systems. AC has prevailed largely due to transformers and lower power losses with high-voltage transmission.

Questions & Answers

memory of development brain of the human psychologist
SERAJ Reply
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Ananya
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Shilan
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usef
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Gil
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Shilan
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Shilan
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Daniella
waasup
Isaiah
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androi
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Shilan
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Daniella
Me to
Shilan
Thanks
Shilan
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Shilan
working
Daniella
how did psychology begin?
Valerie Reply
of psychologys commencement, the traces can be seen in the work of Aristotle, where he talk about soul and body, likewise work in durrant, de anima, all these were somewhere supporting dualism, in which soul could exist separately from body
amaan
but if you talk about the moder psychology, Gustav fechner, is credited with performing scientific experiments, basis of his experiments in psychology with his studies perception.
amaan
does psychology deal with love?
Mohammed Reply
Maybe, i think
edem
I definitely would say yes
Clara
how so
Isaiah
*triarchic
Meredith
there are so many different reasons why you can fall in love with someone, many of them develope subconsciously -> psychology
Clara
love messes with the brain, a lot, ergo I believe that Psychology does indeed deal with love
what is synapse
Katie Reply
In the central nervous system, a synapse is a small gap at the end of a neuron that allows a signal to pass from one neuron to the next. synapse are found where nerve cells connect with other nerve cells
Najeem
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Mariah Reply
WHT u mean?
usef
yes
MD
heyy, may i join the conversation please?
edem Reply
who is the father of psychology
Richy Reply
aristatil
Ramadevi
and please, how would you guys, describe the study of psychology at college ?
edem
psychologist student?
Aspen
i mean not yet but am about to start college so wanna know how is it(college in general and psychology course) please
edem
Psychology is the study of mind and behaviour. So if you will take psychology as a subject so you will get to know how your everything (physical, mental, social, spiritual aspects) effects your behaviour
sakina
With this brief knowledge you can help people to cope up with their problems and only you can guide them correctly
sakina
And if you go for further specialisations you can study hypnosis, face reading, body language etc
sakina
Thanks a lot🙏🏾 And ik some of the stuffs u said but i am also going to write thesis, right ?
edem
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edem
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Khan
hae everyone, hope you are well this evning my question is what is the difference between drive and motivation
Michael
good question
Rainee
drive is more like an impulse or urge and i think they both go together (drive and motivation) even if there is a slight difference
edem
@ Michael Drive is delivered to be innate without the use of an external stimuli, motivation normally evolves an outside stimuli which may include praise, appreciate, or reward.
Reginald
*believed...sorry for typo
Reginald
@Reginald, can't the motivation come from the inner self?
edem
Good question, please give an example.
Reginald
can we say desire of success for example
edem
Wilhelm Wundt is the father of psychology
ipau
Wilhem Wundt thank you for the road that you opened.
Qwanta
You mean who is the father of having a great educated argumentative guess? nothing is more wrong than this question. The question is you should ask yourselfs is, how sure are you abour their scientific studying? one's percieved assimilated approach to judging another person and saying they are
Roger
the biggest problem with scientific research and data is that ya you could get the same result 1000 times then it could go the other way 1000 times, but we would never know that and we did, we would still say ya but the proof is there. The only thing science proves is that humanity has
Roger
no facts about human behavior in the scientific context, but more in the trial and error.. sorry to tell you, but so far no one has proven Father of anything, thats up to you and i, judgement is bias, science is good enough lazy
Roger
cognitive development is the growing and development of the brain.
Jessy Reply
Anyone knows about Techno-fascism?
Hussein Reply
Ecofascism is a theoretical political model in which an authoritarian government would require individuals to sacrifice their own interests to the "organic whole of nature". The term is also used as a rhetorical pejorative to undermine the environmental movement.
ipau
what's the big difference between prejudice and discrimination?
Danice Reply
A prejudiced person may not act on their attitude.  Therefore, someone can be prejudiced towards a certain group but not discriminate against them.  Also, prejudice includes all three components of an attitude (affective, behavioral and cognitive), whereas discrimination just involves behavior
Nancy Lee
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basher
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Rahul
what is all about cognitive development?
Kamohelo
cognitive development is the growing and development of the brain
Jessy
how do you control a variable when using spss whilst running a pearsons correlation analysis?
Jessie Reply
it dependa on your study. according to what you want to say and explain your result
Pouran
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Jayla Reply
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brivia Reply
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Rajendra
what is psychology
Chethani Reply
the study of insecurities and the effect on the host .
Sera
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior & mental processes
Angela
psychology is science about learning human behaviour
Zhamshid
behaviorosm
Khan
In thinking about the case of Candace described earlier, do you think that Candace benefitted or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?
Nene Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics ii. OpenStax CNX. Nov 29, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11458/1.2
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