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Beyond the chromospheres, corona extends up to 10 Solar radii. This has long jets of gas running through it. A large number of energetic ionized hydrogen particles manage to penetrate the magnetosphere. These particles get trapped in the magnetosphere and travel in toroidal path around the magnetic field lines. This belt of trapped particles is called VAN ALLEN BELT.

These ionized particles keep travelling between North&South Magnetic poles of the Earth. At a height from 100 km to 1000 km the inward –rushing or outward –rushing charged particles interact with neutral atmospheric gas particles(Nitrogen&Oxygen).In the process they produce the peak of solar activity. Auroral displays become brighter and solar perturbations are perceptible up to the surface of the Earth.

Depression in corona let matter escape at a speed of 800km/sec. The brief solar flares cause a wind of 1000km/sec. Whereas the eruptions of prominences cause the solar wind to speed up to 2000km/sec.

11 year cycle remains an enigma.

EFFECT OF SOLAR ACTIVITY ON POWER TRANSMISSION&COMMUNICATION

Periodic increase in solar activities in form of increased sun-spots and furious sun-flares lead to major disruptions in power transmissions and communication networks.

August 2, 1972 a 230KV transformer exploded in British Columbia in Canada.

On March 13,1989 , at the peak of Solar Activity, Quebec Province went without power due to failure of the electric transmission network.

October-November 2003 witnessed some of the largest solar flares ever recorded in mankind’s history. The barrage of charged particles forced many satellites to be turned off. Despite this preventive measure many satellites got damaged. Astronauts in international Space Station had to retreat to better shielded portions of their service modules. The air-liners were routed to lower latitudes to prevent communication failure and to protect passenger from unsafe level of radiation exposure. National Transmission Grids had to properly protected against surges. Despite this 50,000 residents in south Sweden faced power failure briefly.

The Global Radio Broadcast at Short Wave RF gets seriously effected due to disruptions of ionosphere surrounding the Earth.

Manned Space Missions can get disrupted. Understanding the solar flares will help the space walkers and astronauts going to Moon&Mars in the coming decade. Astronauts exposed to eruptions can receive a year’s worth of radiation.

Coronal mass Ejections cause Solar Storm. This distorts Earth’s magnetic field. Backlash of charged particles trapped in radiation belts generates massive voltage that can damage satellites and power grids.

THE PATTERN OF SOLAR ACTIVITY

(cooling Sun may bring relief to sweltering Earth-The Hindu)

Sun’s output varies over a cycle of 11 years. When vast amount of energy are being released deep inside&strong magnetic fields rip through the sun’s surface, this is the period of heightened solar activity accompanied with increased number of sun-spots. From 1650 to the end of 1700, the sun-spots almost completely disappeared&Earth experienced little ice again. At this time Thames froze over, Europe shivered&harvest failed.

In the next few years from now, solar activity will come down . This will lead to increase in cloud formation&reduction in UV radiation reaching the atmosphere. Overall it will bring about a decline of 0.2 degree centigrade in Global Temperatures.

It is predicted the Carbon Emissions of 450ppm or Carbon Equivalent Emissions of 500ppm will bring a 2 degree C increase accompanied with great floods.

Carbon Dioxide is not the only greenhouse gas. Methane, Nitrous Oxide&Hydrofluorocarbons are the other greenhouse gases. When we include the effect of other green house gases then we talk in terms of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent.

STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) mission to scan the SUN In 3-D:

NASA is to launch two nearly identical space-based observatories that will enable the construction of 3D view of the Sun. This is a $550-million, two year mission. This will help us understand CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS better.

NASA Scientist Madhulika Guhathakurta says,” of the bazillion stars that we have in our night sky, sun is the one that only counts. Any understanding or breakthrough we can make in understanding the sun&its environment is of direct relevance to every human being on this Planet”.

This mission will improve early warning system against CME s.

[“The Mysterious Origins of Solar Flares” George D. Holman, Scientific American, April 2006;

“The fury of Space Storm”, James L. Burch, Scientific American, April 2001;

”Paradox of Hot Sun’s Corona” Bhola N. Dwivedi&Kenneth J.Phillip, Scientific American, June 2001”.

(External Link) ]

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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