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Social sciences


Grade 9

The nuclear age and the cold war

Module 13

The nucleur and space race

Activity 1:

To historically research the cold war by the use of cause and effect, continuity and change, comparisons and conclusions: the nuclear and space race

[lo 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.4, 3.2, 3.3]


Interview with Harold Agnew, circa 1949, American nuclear physicist

After the destruction of the Second World War, nobody expected the Soviet Union to have the infrastructure to produce a nuclear bomb. They certainly did.They had to possess information on the Manhattan Project.


Commentary of Robert Oppenheimer, American Nuclear expert

If another world war breaks out, mankind will be destroyed. We should ask ourselves whether mankind is doing enough to prevent it.


Interview with the Soviet military strategist, Valentin Laryonov, 1950

Malkenkov warned the whole nation and world population that an atomic war would destroy the entire world and that such a war should be avoided at all costs.


Comment of Galina Mishina, baker in Moscow, circa 1989

In the fifties we did not realise that the Americans were afraid of a Russian attack. We were under the impression that they knew that we pursued peace and that we wanted to live in peace. We wanted to develop our country, it is written nowhere that we wanted to invade any country.


Comment of Jean Asam, American student during the fifties

We wanted to protect ourselves against bombs and run no risks. Therefore we built bunkers and shelters in our backyards. It happened quite commonly in American suburbs.



An eyewitness account by Harold Agnew, American Nuclear physicist on the experimental nuclear explosion in the Pacific Ocean in 1954

We were not prepared for such a powerful explosion and large fall-out area. A Japanese fishing vessel, “ The Happy Dragon” was contaminated through the nuclear fall out. The vessel was quite a distance from the test site. Before we realised what had happened, the fishermen were radio-actively contaminated. The fishermen were 120 km away from the explosion. One out of 24 crewmen survived. A mistake was made. The wind carried the radio-active fall-out farther than expected. It is regrettable that people were contaminated…


Comment by Oleg Troyanovski, Kruschev’s adviser on satellites

In Kruschev’s opinion, warships and bombers have become obsolete and that in future missiles will take their place. For that reason technicians from all over the Soviet Union got together in the desert at Baikonur in Kazakstan to work on satellite development. On 4 October 1957 we launched the first space satellite, Sputnik (means travelling companion of the Earth). The Americans always pretended that they were the richest and technologically the most advanced country in the world. With Sputnik that travels around the earth, this perception changed.


The Spacecraft

Russian Soyuz TM-34 capsule.

Length: 7,5 metres.

Weight: Just over 7 tonnes.

Reaches space in approximately 8 minutes powered by a Soyuz rocket.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11063/1.1
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