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T = 10*(Ts + 1/(2r) + 1/(rN))

T = 10(.008 s + .003125 s + (100 KB)(60 s/m)/(9600 rpm)(300 KB/r)

T = 10(.008 s + .003125 s + .002083 s)

T = 132.083 ms

What file organization would you choose to maximize efficiency in terms of speed of access, use of storage space, and ease of updating(adding/deleting/modifying) when the data are:

  • updated infrequently and accessed frequently in random order?

Both the indexed file organization and the hashed file are efficient for frequent access to random parts of a file. Since the fileis updated infrequently, the overhead of keeping indexes is reduced.

  • updated frequently and accessed in its entirety relatively frequently?

The indexed sequential file is efficient when access is usually to the entire file in sequential order. Keeping multiple indexes addsunnecessary overhead and the hash structure is not as useful for sequential access.

  • updated frequently and accessed frequently in random order?

The hashed file is efficient for frequent updates, and also is efficient for random access.

Consider a hierarchical file system in which free disk space is kept in a free space list.

  • Suppose the pointer to free space is lost. Can the system reconstruct the free space list?

Yes, it is easy to recover the lost space. Keep a bit map for every block on the disk, initially set to zero. Then traverse the filesystem starting at the root, and mark the bit mask with a 1 for every block that is used by every file. In the end, those blocks still marked by a zero arefree.

  • Suggest a scheme to ensure that the pointer is never lost as a result of a single memory failure.

One solution is to keep a copy of the free space pointer in several different places on the disk.

Consider the organization of a unix file as represented by the inode (figure 12.13). assume that there are 12 direct block pointers in a singly,Doubly, and triply indirect pointer in each inode. further, assume that the system block size and the disk sector size are both 8k. if the disk blockPointer is 32 bits, with 8 bits to identify the physical disk and 24 bits to identify the physical block, then

  • What is the maximum file size supported by this system?

The maximum file size can be found by calculating the space all the different types of block pointers can reference. First we need tocalculate the number of pointers an indirect block can hold:

N = 8*1024*8/32 = 2048


Size = 12*8 + 2048*8 + 2048*2048*8 + 2048*2048*2048*8 KB = 64 TeraBytes

  • What is the maximum file system partition supported by this system?

The maximum file system partition is essentially equal to the size of a disk. Since we use 24 bits to address the blocks on eachdisk, the maximum size of a disk is 128 GB.

  • Assuming no information other than that the file inode is already in main memory, how many disk accesses are required to access the byte inposition 13,423,956?

The address given is in the 13 MB range. The 12 direct pointers cover 96K, so the address is not located there. The singlyindirect pointer covers the next 16 MB of the file, so the address is in a block referenced by the singly indirect pointer. This means we will need two diskaccesses, one for the indirect block and another for the block containing the data.

What services are provided by tcp that are not provided by udp? briefly explain what each of these services does.

  • reliability: TCP ensures that whenever a source host sends a message, it will be received by the destination host in the order it was sent.If the network drops or corrupts the packet, TCP will retransmit it until it is received correctly.
  • flow control: TCP checks how much data the destination host can buffer, then makes sure the source host does not send more than this amount at atime. This keeps the source host from sending data faster than the destination host can receive it.
  • congestion control: TCP continually adapts to current network conditions, and slows down the source host if the network becomes congested.This keeps the source from sending data faster than the network can deliver it.

Explain how udp traffic can "take over" the network when competing with tcp traffic.

UDP does not use congestion control, so all it has to do is send at whatever rate it desires. If this causes packet loss due tocongestion in a router (a FIFO queue overflowing), then the TCP flows will slow down. If UDP sends at a high enough rate, it can force the TCP flows to slowdown enough that they get nothing.

Why does a udp server need only one socket but a tcp server needs one socket for each client?

A UDP server needs only one socket because anyone can send to it on that socket. It does not establish connections to each client. ATCP server, on the other hand, needs a socket for each client because it establishes a separate connection for each one.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Operating systems. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10785/1.2
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