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If this seems overly complicated, remember that the melodic and harmonic "rules" for major keys are quite different from those of minor keys. (Consider the melodic and harmonic minor scales, as well as the tendency to use different harmonic progressions.) This actually is quite analogous; the big difference is that Indian music has so many more scale types. Since the nuance and complexity of Indian music are focused in the melody rather than the harmony, it is this large number of scales that allows for a great and varied tradition.

Those who are particularly interested in modes and scales may notice that there is a rough correlation between some Hindustani thats and the Western church modes . For example, the pattern of intervals in Asavari is similar to that of the Aeolian mode (or natural minor scale), and that of Bilawal is similar to the Ionian mode (or major scale). Some thats do not correlate at all with the Western modes (for example, take a close look at Purvi and Todi , above ), but others that do include Bhairavi (similar to Phrygian mode), Kafi (Dorian), Kalyan (Lydian), and Khamaj (Mixolydian). Even for these, however, it is important to remember the differences between the traditions. For example, not only is Asavari used in a very different way from either Aeolian mode or the natural minor scale, the scale notes are actually only roughly the same, since the Indian modes use a different system of tuning.


The tuning of modern Western Music is based on equal temperament ; the octave is divided into twelve equally spaced pitches . But this is not the only possible tuning system. Many other music traditions around the world use different tuning systems, and Western music in the past also used systems other than equal temperament. Medieval European music, for example, used just intonation , which is based on a pure perfect fifth . (Please see Tuning Systems for more about this.)

The preferred tuning system of a culture seems to depend in part on other aspects of that culture's music; its texture , scales , melodies , harmonies , and even its most common musical instruments. For example, just intonation worked very well for medieval chant, which avoided thirds, emphasized fifths, and featured voices and instruments capable of small, quick adjustments in tuning. But equal temperament works much better for the keyboard instruments, triadic harmonies, and quick modulations so common in modern Western music.

In India, the most common accompaniment instrument (as ubiquitous as pianos in Western music) is the tanpura . (There are several alternative spellings for this name in English, including taanpura and tambura .) This instrument is a chordophone in the lute family. It has four very long strings. The strings are softly plucked, one after the other. It takes about five seconds to go through the four-string cycle, and the cycle is repeated continuously throughout the music. The long strings continue to vibrate for several seconds after being plucked, and the harmonics of the strings interact with each other in complex ways throughout the cycle. The effect for the listener is not of individually-plucked strings. It is more of a shimmering and buzzing drone that is constant in pitch but varying in timbre .

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
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do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
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Akash Reply
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Special subjects in music theory. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10220/1.5
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