# 3.3 Electronic structure  (Page 3/5)

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A special type of notation is used to show an atom's electron configuration. The notation describes the energy levels, orbitals and the number of electrons in each. For example, the electron configuration of lithium is ${1\mathrm{s}}^{2}{2\mathrm{s}}^{1}$ . The number and letter describe the energy level and orbital and the number above the orbital shows how many electrons are in that orbital.

Aufbau diagrams for the elements fluorine and argon are shown in [link] and [link] respectively. Using standard notation, the electron configuration of fluorine is ${1\mathrm{s}}^{2}{2\mathrm{s}}^{2}{2\mathrm{p}}^{5}$ and the electron configuration of argon is ${1\mathrm{s}}^{2}{2\mathrm{s}}^{2}{2\mathrm{p}}^{6}$ .

Give the electron configuration for sodium ( $\mathrm{Na}$ ) and draw an aufbau diagram.

1. Sodium has 11 electrons.
2. We start by placing two electrons in the $1s$ orbital: ${1s}^{2}$ . Now we have 9 electrons left to place in orbitals, so we put two in the $2s$ orbital: ${2s}^{2}$ . There are now 7 electrons to place in orbitals so we place 6 of them in the $2p$ orbital: ${2p}^{6}$ . The last electron goes into the $3s$ orbital: ${3s}^{1}$ .
3. The electron configuration is: ${1s}^{2}{2s}^{2}{2p}^{6}{3s}^{1}$
4. Using the electron configuration we get the following diagram:

There are different orbital shapes, but we will be mainly dealing with only two. These are the 's' and 'p' orbitals (there are also 'd' and 'f' orbitals). The 's' orbitals are spherical and the 'p' orbitals are dumbbell shaped.

## Hund's rule and pauli's principle

Sometimes people refer to Hund's rule for electron configuration. This rule simply says that electrons would rather be in a subshell on their own than share a subshell. This is why when you are filling the subshells you put one electron in each subshell and then go back and fill the subshell, before moving onto the next energy level.

Pauli's exclusion principle simply states that electrons have a property known as spin and that two electrons in a subshell will not spin the same way. This is why we draw electrons as one arrow pointing up and one arrow pointing down.

## Core and valence electrons

Electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom are called valence electrons . The electrons that are in the energy shells closer to the nucleus are called core electrons . Core electrons are all the electrons in an atom, excluding the valence electrons. An element that has its valence energy level full is more stable and less likely to react than other elements with a valence energy level that is not full.

Valence electrons

The electrons in the outer energy level of an atom

Core electrons

All the electrons in an atom, excluding the valence electrons

## The importance of understanding electron configuration

By this stage, you may well be wondering why it is important for you to understand how electrons are arranged around the nucleus of an atom. Remember that during chemical reactions, when atoms come into contact with one another, it is the electrons of these atoms that will interact first. More specifically, it is the valence electrons of the atoms that will determine how they react with one another.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Properties of longitudinal waves