# 3.28 Sspd_chapter 1_part 11_solid state of matter_crystalline nature  (Page 2/5)

 S.No. Properties Diamond cube(dc) Simple Cube(sc) Body CenteredCube(bcc) Face Centered Cube(fcc) Hexa-gonalClose_pack structure NaCl 1 Vol.of unit cell a^3 a^3 a^3 a^3 (3/2) [√3(ca^2)] a^3 2 No. of atoms percell 8 1 2 4 6 4 cations4 anions 3 No.of atoms per unit vol. 8/ a^3 1/ a^3 2/ a^3 4/ a^3 4/ [√3(ca^2)] 8/a^3 4 No.of nearest neighbours 4 6 8 12 12 5 Nearest neighbourDistance(2r) a√3/4 a/2 a√3/2 a√2/2 a/2 6 Atomic radius a√3/8 a/2 a√3/4 a√2/4 a/2 7 Atomic packingFactor π√3/16=0.34 π/6= 0.52 π√3/8=0.68 π √2/6=0.74 π√2/6=0.74 0.67 8 Examples Ge, Si and Diamond Polonium Sodium,Iron,Chromium Aluminium,Copper,Lead Magnesium,Zinc,Cadmium Ionic solids such as NaCl, AgCl,LiFMgO,CaO

Water shows an anomaly in the range from 4°C to 0°C. With reduction in temperature at and below 4°C the density decreases instead of increasing. At 0°C, the Ice Temperature, it has the lightest density. This is because of the open-pack hexagonal structure of ice crystal. From 4°C to 0°C, the phase transition is occurring through out the volume of liquid and at 0°C the phase transition is complete. At this temperature the whole mass of water is fully transformed into a solid piece of ice. Therefore at 0°C we have the lightest density of Ice. It is this anomaly which helps the survival of fishes in frozen lakes. Nine-tenth of ice-berg is submerged and one-tenth of the ice-berg is visible. Therefore we say that the tip of the ice-berg is visible.

1.11.2 ALLOTROPIC FORMS OF CARBON

There are elements which exist as different crystalline allotropes such as Carbon. This most commonly found element exists as three crystalline allotropes namely Graphite, Diamond and Buckminstefullerene Crystal also known a buckeyball structure. The structure is shown in Figure 1.56 and Figure 1.57 and their properties are tabulated in Table (1.22).

1.11.2.1. DIAMOND CRYSTAL.

In Figure 1.56 we show the Diamond allotropic form of Carbon. As shown in Fig 1.56 A , Diamond is two interpenetrating FCC sub-lattices with one sub-lattice displaced with respect to the other along the diagonal of the cube by a quarter of diagonal length (a√3)/4 where ‘a’ the lattice parameter. Since Diamond unit cell is a cube, its lattice parameter is the side of a cube as shown in Figure 1.56 B. The basic unit cell of Diamond is cube of equal sides ‘a’ length. ‘a’ is the lattice constant of Diamond. Its value is 3.57 Angstrom. The basic unit cell is subdivided into 8 subcubes ABCDEFGH. ABCD comprise the upper 4 subcubes and EFGH comprise the lower 4 subcubes. In the Figure 1.56B , subcube E is hidden due to the perspective view. The subcube A, C, in the upper layer and F,H in the lower layer contain the tetrahedral structure of carbon atoms as shown in Figure 1.56D. As a result the basic UNIT CELL has 8 C atoms at the 8 corners of the cube, 6 C atoms on the six faces of the cube and 4 C atoms in the bodies of A, C , F, H subcube. The net result is that on looking at the PLAN VIEW of Diamond Unit Cell as shown in Figure 1.56C we see one C atom sharing its 4 valence electrons with 4 C atoms at its 4 corners. This kind of structure is repeated through out.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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