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Therefore

…………………… 1.96

Therefore

……………………………………………………………1.97

Therefore in semiconductors the mean free path will be the product of the thermal velocity and the mean free time. Mean free time is calculated from mobility of the mobile carriers which is determined experimentally.

From Table(1.10) we obtain the mobility values. In Table (1.11) the mobility, mean free time, thermal velocity and mean free paths are tabulated for Ge , Si and GaAs.

Table(1.11) Mobilities, Mean Free Times, Thermal Velocities and Mean Free Paths of Ge, Si and GaAs.

Semiconductor μ n (cm^ 2 / (V-sec)) τ (femtosec) v e (m/sec) L* (A°)
Ge 3900 2217 0.95×10^ 5 2106
Si 1350 767.6 0.95×10^ 5 729
GaAs 8600 4890 0.95×10^ 5 4645.5

As we see electron has much larger mobility in semiconductors as compared to that in metals. This implies that the mean free path of electrons is greater by one order of magnitude in semiconductor as compared to that in metal. But why is the scattering less in semiconductors as compared to that in metal.? This answer is obtained by determining the de Broglie wavelength of electron and by using wave optics.

We will determine the velocity of a conducting electron in Electron Microscope, in metal and in semiconductor. In these three cases the conducting electron gains Kinetic Energy equal to the Potential Energy it loses while falling through a potential difference of 10kV in case of Electron Microscope(because 10kV is the accelerating voltage in Electron Microscope), through a potential difference of 4V in case of metal(because average kinetic energy associated with conducting electron is (3/5)E F and E F is 7eV in copper) and through a potential difference 0.025V in case of semiconductor ( since thermal voltage at 300K Room Temperature is kT/q= 0.025V). From the kinetic velocity the de Broglie wavelength is determined. The set of equations are: Kinetic Energy gained =

Therefore momentum gained

;

Therefore de Broglie wavelength:

;

In Table (1.12) the de Broglie wavelengths are tabulated:

Table1.12. de Broglie wavelengths of conducting electron in Electron Microscope, Metal and Semiconductor.

V acc v e (m/sec) λ(m) Implications
Electron Microscope 10kV 59×10^ 6 10^ -11 m = (1/50)(5A°) λ<<a (lattice constant)
100kV 187.6×10^ 6 4×10^ -12 m
Metal 4V 10^ 6 6×10^ -10 m = (5A°) λ~ a (lattice constant)
Semiconductor 0.025V 10^ 5 7.75×10^ -9 m = (78A°) λ>>a (lattice constant)

As seen from Table(1.12), we see that de Borglie wavelength is much less than the lattice constant in case of Electron Microscope. For 100kV , theoretically the resolution should be (1/100)(4A°) This is like Sunlight falling through a broad aperture. Sun-ray will pass in a straight line and shadow of the aperture should fall on the screen behind the aperture. Hence in an Electron Microscope, a regular lattice array does not scatter an electron beam. The shadow of the crystal lattice should be imaged. But this theoretical resolution is never achieved since we are using magnetostatic focusing. Only 1A° is the resolution actually achieved. In case of 10kV, though the theoretical resolution (1/50)(5A°) but in practice only 10A° resolution is achieved. The electron beam can penetrate through a thin specimen and produce the image of its broad features without being influenced by the atomic details.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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