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3 : Roots having square root term occur in pairs 1+√3 and 1-√3.

4 : If a polynomial equation involves only even powers of x and all terms are positive, then all roots of polynomial equation are imaginary (complex). For example, roots of the quadratic equation given here are complex.

x 4 + 2 x 2 + 4 = 0

Descartes rules of signs

Descartes rules are :

(i) Maximum number of positive real roots of a polynomial equation f(x) is equal to number of sign changes in f(x).

(ii) Maximum number of negative real roots of a polynomial equation f(x) is equal to number of sign changes in f(-x).

The signs of the terms of polynomial equation f x = x 3 + 3 x 2 12 x + 3 = 0 are “+ + - +”. There are two sign changes as we move from left to right. Hence, this cubic polynomial can have at most 2 positive real roots. Further, corresponding f - x = - x 3 + 3 x 2 + 12 x + 3 = 0 has signs of term given as “- + + +“. There is one sign change involved here. It means that polynomial equation can have at most one negative root.


Zero polynomial

The function is defined as :

y = f(x) = 0

The polynomial “0”, which has no term at all, is called zero polynomial. The graph of zero polynomial is x-axis itself. Clearly, domain is real number set R, whereas range is a singleton set {0}.

Constant function

It is a polynomial of degree 0. The value of constant function is constant irrespective of values of "x". The image of the constant function (y) is constant for all values of pre-images (x).

y = f(x) = c

Constant function

Constant function is a polynomial of degree 0.

The graph of a constant function is a straight line parallel to x-axis. As “y = (f(x) = c” holds for real values of “x”, the domain of constant function is "R". On the other hand, the value of “y” is a single valued constant, hence range of constant function is singleton set {c}.We can treat constant function also as a linear function of the form f(x) = c with m=0. Its graph is a straight line like that of linear function.

There is an interesting aspect about periodicity of constant function. A polynomial function is not periodic in general. A periodic function repeats function values after regular intervals. It is defined as a fuction for which f(x+T) = f(x), where T is the period of the function. In the case of constant function, function value is constant whatever be the value of independent variable. It means that f(x + a 1 ) = f(x + a 2 ) = .......... f(x) = c . Clearly, it meets the requirement with the difference that there is no definite or fixed period like "T". The relation of periodicity, however, holds for any change to x. We, therefore, summarize (it is also the accepted position) that constant function is a periodic function with no period.

Linear function

Linear function is a polynomial of order 1.

f x = a 0 x + a 1

It is also expressed as :

f x = m x + c

Linear function

Linear function is a polynomial of degree 1.

The graph of a linear function is a straight line. The coefficient of “x” i.e. m is slope of the line and c is y-intercept, which is obtained for x = 0 such that f(0) = c. It is clear from the graph that its domain and range both are real number set R.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
What is power set
Satyabrata Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Functions. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10464/1.64
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