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  • His weakend arm did not stop him in his later endeavours or caused him to hesitate when he had to cross full and crocodile-infested rivers.
  • Do you think Livingstone behaved like a hero? Why do you think so?

What characteristic can we deduce from this?

When travelling to Luanda, Livingstone had to cross the territory of a hostile chieftain. This chieftain offered to let him cross his territory if he would leave behind one of his servants as a slave. Livingstone emphatically refused the deal.

  • What motivated Livingstone’s decision?
  • Would you have acted in the same way? Why?

c) The servants who eventually carried Livingstone's body to the coast for it to be taken to England risked their own lives by doing so. The chieftains of that region had strictly forbidden the transport of a corpse across their territories. Why would they have done this?

d) The next article explains Livingstone's attitude to the slave trade. He sent regular reports to England to bring this trade to the attention of the rest of the world.

Give a brief explanation of the causes and results of the slave trade.


“1859 – It is a beautiful country. I have come across the most beautiful villages every mile or less.”

“There was no sign of any human being for 120 miles. I have to tell the truth about this. The slave traders attack the villages and many people are captured. Thousands of people die from the wounds that they suffer during battles with the slave traders, or die in the famine that follows the destruction of their villages and harvests. To many people are dying unnecessarily in this search for slaves. It is evident that only one tenth of the slaves reach their destination. All the rest simply die . . ".

e) An assignment for you!

Write a short letter to a foreign newspaper giving your impression of David Livingstone as an explorer. (You may write a critical evaluation of his contribution!)

Use a clean sheet of paper, which you may treat to make it look old.


LO 2
HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.
We know this when the learner:
2.1 chronology and time:
  • places events, people and changes on a timeline which includes terms such as ‘BC’, ‘AD’ and ‘BCE’;
2.2 cause and effect:
  • gives reasons for and explains the results of key events and changes in more than one context;
2.3 change and continuity:
  • identifies some aspects of society which have changed and some which have stayed the same over time in more than one context.



(a) To spread Christianity

Later: - Passage from the centre of Africa to westcoast/eastcoast for trading purposes, making Africa accessible to missionaries, treatment of “fever”

  • Acquire knowledge about the minerals and resources of Africa
  • Try to bring an end to slavery
  • Search for the sources of the large rivers: Zambezi, Congo, Nile

(c) superstition, safety risk

(d) Causes: money/business

Effects: Individuals/businesses capture slaves, slaves imprisoned in forts, exported overseas in ships, agreements with local chieftains to acquire slaves

  • The following aspects also have relevance: freedom, cruelty, wars, human rights, labour, families, etc.

(e) The following (or any other) criteria can be used:

slavery, missionary work, trade, colonialism


  • Discuss his important journeys:
  • First journey: Zambezi River (west coast), 1852 – 1856
  • Second journey: Lake Nyasa (east coast), 1858 – 1859
  • Third journey: River Nile (northwards) 1872 – 1873

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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