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Probability: Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events is part of the collection col10555 written by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean and explains the concept of independent events, where the probability of event A does not have any effect on the probability of event B, and mutually exclusive events, where events A and B cannot occur at the same time. The module has contributions from Roberta Bloom.

Independent and mutually exclusive do not mean the same thing.

Independent events

Two events are independent if the following are true:

  • P(A|B) = P(A)
  • P(B|A) = P(B)
  • P(A AND B) = P(A) ⋅ P(B)

Two events A and B are independent if the knowledge that one occurred does not affect the chance the other occurs. For example, the outcomes of two roles of a fair die are independent events. The outcome of the first roll does not change the probability for the outcome of the secondroll. To show two events are independent, you must show only one of the above conditions. If two events are NOT independent, then we say that they are dependent .

Sampling may be done with replacement or without replacement .

  • With replacement : If each member of a population is replaced after it is picked, then that member has the possibility of being chosen more than once. When sampling is done with replacement, then events are considered to be independent, meaning the result of the first pick will not change the probabilities for the second pick.
  • Without replacement: : When sampling is done without replacement, then each member of a population may be chosen only once. In this case, the probabilities for the second pick are affected by the result of the first pick. The events are considered to be dependent or not independent.

If it is not known whether A and B are independent or dependent, assume they are dependent until you can show otherwise .

Mutually exclusive events

A and B are mutually exclusive events if they cannot occur at the same time. This means that A and B do not share any outcomes and P(A AND B) = 0 .

For example, suppose the sample space S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} . Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} , and C = {7, 9} . A AND B = { 4 , 5 } . P(A AND B) = 2 10 and is not equal to zero. Therefore, A and B are not mutually exclusive. A and C do not have any numbers in common so P(A AND C) = 0 . Therefore, A and C are mutually exclusive.

If it is not known whether A and B are mutually exclusive, assume they are not until you can show otherwise .

The following examples illustrate these definitions and terms.

Flip two fair coins. (This is an experiment.)

The sample space is {HH, HT, TH, TT} where T = tails and H = heads. The outcomes are HH , HT , TH , and TT . The outcomes HT and TH are different. The HT means that the first coin showed heads and the second coin showed tails. The TH means that the first coin showed tails and the second coin showed heads.

  • Let A = the event of getting at most one tail . (At most one tail means 0 or 1 tail.) Then A can be written as {HH, HT, TH} . The outcome HH shows 0 tails. HT and TH each show 1 tail.
  • Let B = the event of getting all tails. B can be written as {TT} . B is the complement of A . So, B = A' . Also, P(A) + P(B) = P(A) + P(A') = 1 .
  • The probabilities for A and for B are P(A) = 3 4 and P(B) = 1 4 .
  • Let C = the event of getting all heads. C = {HH} . Since B = {TT} , P(B AND C) = 0 . B and C are mutually exclusive. ( B and C have no members in common because you cannot have all tails and all heads at the same time.)
  • Let D = event of getting more than one tail. D = {TT} . P(D) = 1 4 .
  • Let E = event of getting a head on the first roll. (This implies you can get either a head or tail on the second roll.) E = { HT , HH } . P(E) = 2 4 .
  • Find the probability of getting at least one (1 or 2) tail in two flips. Let F = event of getting at least one tail in two flips. F = { HT , TH , TT } . P(F) = 3 4
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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
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da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 03, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10522/1.40
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